What Is The Main Cause Of Blood In Stool – Hematochezia refers to the passage of fresh, red blood in the stool and is typically indicative of bleeding originating in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The lower gastrointestinal tract is anatomically defined as the region distal to the ligament of Treitz, which is the thin band of tissue that connects and supports the end of the duodenum and the beginning of the jejunum. Hematochezia should not be confused with melena, which refers to the passage of black, tarry stools that originate in the upper gastrointestinal tract, which is proximal to the ligament of Treitz.

Causes of hematochezia in adults usually include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis; hemorrhoids; and bleeding from a diverticulum in the colon. In addition, peptic ulcer disease and esophageal varices are causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding that can produce hematochezia when severe.

What Is The Main Cause Of Blood In Stool

What Is The Main Cause Of Blood In Stool

Ulcerative colitis is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease that involves an autoimmune attack on the large intestine (ie, the colon), causing inflammation and ulceration of the mucosal lining. Severe ulcerative colitis can cause hematochezia due to bleeding from the ulcers.

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Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the lower part of the rectum and can be painless or painful, depending on whether they are located internally or externally, respectively. They are usually caused by straining during bowel movements and are associated with obesity and pregnancy. When the walls of the blood vessels in hemorrhoids are stretched too thin as a result of increased pressure in the lower part of the rectum, usually from straining, hematochezia can occur.

Diverticulosis is a condition that occurs when small pouches (called diverticulum) form and push out through the wall of the colon, which can cause bleeding. Genetics, as well as a high-fat, low-fiber diet, make an individual more prone to developing diverticular pouches.

Peptic ulcer disease occurs when the protective lining of the stomach and duodenum of the small intestine is eroded due to infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If the ulcer is severe, rapid bleeding may occur and immediate treatment is required because of the risk of hypovolemic shock.

Esophageal varices refer to the presence of enlarged veins in the esophagus due to obstruction of flow through the portal vein, which is often caused by severe scarring of the liver. Blood pooling can lead to rupture of the esophageal vein, which presents as massive amounts of blood loss and melena (ie, black, tarry stools) or hematochezia.

Causes Of Blood In The Urine

In older people, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause multiple, often smaller, repeated bleeds. An AVM is a vascular injury that can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the colon and that is related to advanced age; chronic kidney disease; and certain types of heart disease, such as aortic stenosis. Less common causes of colonic bleeding in adults include cancer and ischemic colitis (ie, inflammation of the colon).

Causes of hematochezia in neonates include necrotizing enterocolitis and midgut volvulus. Necrotizing enterocolitis refers to tissue death in parts of the colon due to decreased blood flow, and midgut volvulus occurs when the intestine twists during embryonic development.

Signs and symptoms of hematochezia usually include bright red blood in the stool that is seen on the toilet or toilet paper when cleaning, as well as feeling pain or pressure in the rectum. In many cases, a person with hematochezia may be unaware of their hematochezia and may not report any symptoms. In other cases, people may experience abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and even syncope (ie, fainting) depending on the cause and severity of the bleeding. Hematochezia that has occurred for a long time can cause excessive blood loss resulting in anemia, which can cause palpitations, difficulty breathing, and syncope. Excessive and rapid blood loss can also lead to hypovolemia and shock. In addition, bleeding associated with the underlying malignancy (ie, colorectal cancer) may present with unintentional weight loss.

What Is The Main Cause Of Blood In Stool

Hematochezia can be diagnosed in the patient’s history if the individual seeks guidance because of the passage of blood in the stool or experiences associated symptoms, such as fainting or dizziness. The doctor may ask questions to confirm the presence of bleeding, estimate the amount and rate of blood loss, identify the source and potential causes, and determine the severity of the bleeding. Diagnosis includes a thorough physical exam followed by a more focused digital exam where a lubricated, gloved finger is inserted into the rectum to look for anything unusual, such as growths, rectal fissures, or hemorrhoids. The doctor may order laboratory tests, including hemoglobin levels, to evaluate anemia. You may also have an upper endoscopy and a colonoscopy, which are procedures where the doctor inserts a small tube with a camera through the esophagus and the rectum, respectively. The procedures are usually performed under anesthesia and allow the doctor to see where the gastrointestinal bleeding is coming from. Computed tomography (CT) angiograms may be performed to visualize the source of blood loss, and if there is active bleeding, a nuclear red blood cell scan may be used to locate the source of the gastrointestinal bleeding. A nuclear red blood cell scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to label red blood cells (RBCs) so they can be visualized and tracked throughout the body.

Blood In Stool: What It Means And How To Treat It

Hematochezia is primarily treated by restoring the individual’s blood volume to help prevent hypovolemia and shock, which are medical emergencies. The second step in treatment usually involves finding the source of the bleeding. Subsequently, depending on the site and the underlying cause, the doctor may use a combination of drug therapy, endoscopic cauterization (that is, a procedure that uses a heated probe to close the bleeding vessels), and surgery. For hemorrhoids, a topical treatment or suppository containing hydrocortisone can help reduce pain. IBD can be treated with medications that control inflammation, such as aminosalicylates (ie, balsalazide, mesalamine, olsalazine) or immunosuppressants (ie, azathioprine and mercaptopurine).

Diverticulosis is usually treated with supportive care, such as high-fiber diets, and is likely to resolve on its own. Ischemic colitis can also be self-limiting and can be treated with supportive care, such as rest and intravenous fluids. If severe, antibiotics (eg, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin) may be given to reduce the risk of infection and necrosis.

AVM and colon cancer may require the use of more invasive approaches, such as endoscopic cauterization and surgery, respectively. Necrotizing enterocolitis is usually treated with a feeding tube and surgery, depending on the severity. Finally, a midgut volvulus can be reduced or untwisted with surgery.

Hematochezia refers to the passage of blood in the stool with origins in the lower gastrointestinal tract. It commonly occurs due to inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis in adults; arteriovenous malformation and colon cancer in older adults; and necrotizing enterocolitis and midgut volvulus in neonates and children. A common sign of hematochezia includes bright red blood that is visible in the stool or on toilet paper after wiping. A person with hematochezia may also feel faint and dizzy due to blood loss and have associated symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhea. The diagnosis is made by a trained physician after a thorough interview and physical exam, sometimes followed by a colonoscopy, CT scan, and nuclear red blood cell scans. Treatment depends on the cause, but usually involves restoring the lost blood volume, locating the source of the bleeding, and stopping the bleeding. Topical medications and creams can be used to treat the underlying causes of hematochezia, and in more severe cases, surgery may be required.

Main Causes Of Deaths (a) And Dalys (b) Attributable To High Systolic…

Diverticular disease. At the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Renal Diseases. Retrieved February 25, 2022, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/diverticulosis-diverticulitis#:~:text=Diverticulosis%20is%20a%20condition%20that, call%20this % 20disease%20diverticular%20.

Ishikawa, S., Mukai, S., Hirata, Y., Kohata, A., Kai, A., Namba, Y., Okimoto, S., Fujisaki, S., Fukuda, S., Takahashi, M., Fukuda, T. and Ohdan, H. (2020). Rectal arteriovenous malformation treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. Case Reports in Gastroenterology, 14(1): 7–14. DOI: 10.1159/000505090

Liu, J.J., & Saltzman, J.R. (2009). Endoscopic hemostasis treatment: how should it be performed?. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 23(7): 484. DOI: 10.1155/2009/857125

What Is The Main Cause Of Blood In Stool

Walker, H. K., Hall, W. D., & Hurst, J. W. (Eds.). (1990). Clinical methods: history, physical and laboratory examinations (3rd ed.). Butterworths. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK411/There are many factors that influence the development of iron deficiency disorders and, consequently, the onset of anemia. See below for the main causes:

Hematuria (blood In The Urine)

NUTRITIONAL CAUSES: The low intake of iron through food does not usually cause an iron deficiency in adults, but during lactation the physiological needs of this mineral are not covered by dairy products and for this reason it is essential an additional intake of this mineral during the 4 a. 6 months old. During childhood, adolescence and pregnancy our physiological needs for iron have increased.

Despite being a major influence, lack of iron food is not the main cause of the development of anemia. Iron malabsorption is not a common cause of deficiency, except in people who have had gastrectomy or suffer from malabsorption syndrome. About 50% of these patients will suffer from iron deficiency anemia in the coming years.

Diets based on plant products, especially in the case of vegans, can cause

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