Why Red Blood Cell Count Is Low – Blood cell disorders are conditions that affect any of your blood cells – these are your red and white blood cells and your platelets. All these cells form in your bone marrow. If certain disorders disrupt the function of one of these cells, they can impair multiple blood cells and their specific function. .
Below are some common benign blood conditions that affect one’s blood cells and platelets. To help our patients better understand each condition, we’ve included symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for each of these benign blood conditions.
- 1 Why Red Blood Cell Count Is Low
- 2 Simplified Overview Of Connecting Factors In Erythropoiesis And Iron…
- 3 Neutropenia (low Neutrophil Count): Types, Symptoms & Causes
- 4 Sprycel® Side Effects In Adults
- 5 What Causes A Low Platelet Count?
- 6 Solved 1. How Do Red Blood Cells Change In Response To
Why Red Blood Cell Count Is Low
What is anemia? Anemia is a blood cell disorder that affects the function of your red blood cells. If you suffer from anemia, your body lacks the healthy blood cells needed to carry oxygen to the rest of your body. Anemia is also sometimes called low hemoglobin. .
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Signs and symptoms associated with anemia depend on the severity and type of anemia you are diagnosed with. Additionally, anemia can sometimes be present without any symptoms. However, some symptoms that indicate anemia include:
Anemia is often associated with deficiencies of certain vitamins and minerals, chronic conditions, and intestinal disorders. Additionally, other risk factors for anemia include pregnancy, age at menarche, and family history of anemia.
To diagnose anemia, our hematologists may recommend a full blood count (FBC), which tells us the level of red blood cells in your blood.
If this is due to a dietary deficiency, supplementation of the deficient nutrients (folate, iron or vitamin B12) may be sufficient. If there are other causes, treatment should be directed accordingly.
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Iron deficiency anemia is a common form of anemia in which the body does not have enough iron to produce hemoglobin.
Some common symptoms of iron deficiency anemia are general fatigue, unusual weakness, pale skin, tingling sensation in the legs, swelling and pain in the tongue, brittle nails and frequent headaches.
Iron deficiency anemia usually results from low food intake, blood loss, increased need for iron during pregnancy, and reduced absorption of iron from one’s diet. Risk factors for iron deficiency include age, genetic conditions, and lifestyle choices.
Our hematologists may recommend a series of tests to diagnose iron deficiency anemia. These tests may include a full blood count (FBC), iron profile, and additional diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy and endoscopy to rule out any intestinal causes.
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Treatment options for iron deficiency anemia may include oral iron supplements, intravenous iron infusion, and red blood cell transfusions.
You can find more information about iron deficiency anemia, its symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options here.
Aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition when the body produces abnormal blood cells. This causes the body to feel tired and increases the risk of uncontrolled bleeding and infections.
Some risk factors for aplastic anemia include exposure to toxic chemicals in cancer treatment, radiation or chemotherapy, certain medications, pregnancy, and autoimmune disorders.
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Treatment of aplastic anemia depends on the patient’s age and severity of the condition. Treatment is aimed at restoring the production of blood cells. Although this is not very common, it can resolve spontaneously without treatment if the condition is mild. Patients require blood and platelet transfusions to prevent and control infection.
Thalassemia is a genetic blood disorder that affects the production of red blood cells. Abnormal production of blood means that affected individuals do not make enough functional red blood cells.
There are several types of thalassemia, and the most common forms are alpha and beta thalassemia. Clinically, patients with thalassemia may have thalassemia minor or thalassemia major.
Thalassemia symptoms can vary, and some have no visible symptoms, while others develop symptoms after adolescence. Some common symptoms include:
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For our hematologists to diagnose thalassemia, they may recommend a complete blood count (FBC). More specific blood tests such as hemoglobin electrophoresis and red cell genotyping are needed to clarify the diagnosis of thalassemia and to determine the sub-group of thalassemia.
Depending on the type of thalassemia you are diagnosed with, treatment options may vary – some types of thalassemia require no treatment at all. However, if you need treatment, our hematologists may recommend iron chelation, blood transfusions, bone marrow or blood stem cell transplants.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood condition in which a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a vein deep in the body, usually in the leg or arm. As a result, blood flow through the vein is partially or completely blocked, causing pain, redness and swelling in the affected limb.
Various risk factors increase your chances of developing deep vein thrombosis. These include prolonged bed rest or prolonged sitting, age, overweight, smoking, cancer, heart failure, genetics, birth control pills, and pregnancy.
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Ultrasound is commonly used in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis. This allows our haematologists to check that your blood is flowing normally through your veins.
The recommended treatment is an anticoagulant, which thins the blood and prevents the clot from getting bigger and stopping it from breaking off and causing a pulmonary embolism. Blood clots dissolve naturally in your body over time.
Pulmonary embolism refers to a condition in which a blood clot (thrombus) lodges in a blood vessel in the lungs. PE usually begins as a clot in a deep vein (also called deep vein thrombosis or DVT) that breaks off and flows into the lungs. It is a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly.
Some common symptoms of pulmonary embolism are shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and pain in the chest or upper back.
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Common risk factors for pulmonary embolism include genetic conditions (blood clotting disorders), prolonged immobility, and a history of cancer or receiving chemotherapy.
Our hematologists may order specific blood tests (including a test called D-dimer), an ECG, a pulmonary angiogram, a chest x-ray, and other diagnostic tests to detect pulmonary embolism.
Depending on the overall health of the patient, different treatment options may be recommended for pulmonary embolism. These include anticoagulant medications, compression stockings, and thrombolytic therapy.
You can find more information about pulmonary embolism, its treatment options, and the potential risks and side effects of anticoagulant medications here.
What Causes A Low Platelet Count?
Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disorder that causes a low platelet count, leading to abnormal bleeding and bruising.
Patients with immune thrombocytopenia who have a platelet count greater than 50 do not exhibit any symptoms of the disease. A low platelet count is usually detected during a routine blood test in these cases. People with low platelet counts may develop symptoms such as petechiae (pin prick rash), bruising, purpura (purple spots on the skin), bleeding from the nose and gums, heavy menstrual periods and fatigue.
Some risk factors for immune thrombocytopenia include sex, which is more common in women, and diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Patients with immune thrombocytopenia who have a platelet count greater than 50 do not exhibit any symptoms of the disease. A low platelet count is usually detected during a routine blood test in these cases.
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Patients with mild ITP usually do not require any active treatment. However, their platelet count should be monitored regularly. Treatment of ITP is aimed at suppressing the body’s immune system to increase platelet count and decrease platelet destruction.
First-line treatments for ITP include steroids such as prednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). It helps by suppressing the immune response and preventing the destruction of platelets.
Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is one of the most common bleeding disorders that occurs due to low levels or malfunctioning of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the blood.
Symptoms of vWD can be too mild to notice or severe and frequent. Symptoms can start at any age and can include lumpy bruises, blood in the urine and stool, and chronic bleeding. Additionally, patients with vWD may notice anemia-like symptoms such as weakness and fatigue.
Solved 1. How Do Red Blood Cells Change In Response To
To diagnose von Willebrand disease, our hematologists may ask questions about your family history. Additionally, our doctor will check for unusual bruising and perform blood tests to determine your blood clotting.
Currently, there is no cure for vWD. However, the condition can be controlled using medications and other treatments such as antifibrinolytic agents, desmopressin, and replacement therapy.
Hereditary red blood cell disorders are genetically transmitted disorders. The two most common types of inherited red blood cell disorders are sickle cell disease and thalassemia. .
A genetic mutation causes thalassemia and these mutations interfere with the normal production of hemoglobin in the body. As mentioned, without enough hemoglobin, oxygen cannot be carried to the rest of the body. Without enough oxygen, your organs cannot function properly. It can lead to conditions such as enlarged spleen, heart problems, bone deformities and growth and development delays in children. .
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Treatment for thalassemia is usually blood transfusion and folic supplementation. A stem
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