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Where Are Stem Cells Found In The Body

Where Are Stem Cells Found In The Body

Jonathan M.W. Slack Director of the Stem Cell Institute of the University of Minnesota. Author of From Egg to Embryo.

Stem Cell Differentiation: Explained

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Stem cell, an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some progeny cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate (become specialized). Stem cells are a continuous source of the differentiated cells that make up the tissues and organs of animals and plants. There is great interest in stem cells because they have potential in the development of therapies to replace defective or damaged cells resulting from a number of disorders and injuries, such as Parkinson’s disease, heart disease and diabetes. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, which are also called tissue stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells (often referred to as ES cells) are stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian embryo at a very early stage of development, when it consists of a hollow ball of dividing cells (a blastocyst). Embryonic stem cells from human embryos and from embryos of certain other mammalian species can be grown in tissue culture.

The most studied embryonic stem cells are mouse embryonic stem cells, which were first reported in 1981. This type of stem cell can be cultured indefinitely in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a glycoprotein cytokine. When cultured mouse embryonic stem cells are injected into an early mouse embryo at the blastocyst stage, they become integrated into the embryo and produce cells that differentiate into most or all of the tissue types that will subsequently develop. This ability to repopulate mouse embryos is the key defining feature of embryonic stem cells, and because of this they are considered pluripotent – ​​that is, capable of developing any cell type of the adult organism. When the embryonic stem cells are kept in culture in the absence of LIF, they will differentiate into “embryoid bodies” that look a bit like early mouse embryos at the egg cylinder stage, with embryonic stem cells in an outer layer of endoderm. When embryonic stem cells are transplanted into an adult mouse, they develop into a type of tumor called a teratoma, which contains a variety of differentiated tissue types.

What Are Stem Cells & How Do They Impact Modern Medicine?

Maize embryonic stem cells are widely used to create genetically modified mice. This is done by introducing new genes into embryonic stem cells in tissue culture that select for the particular genetic variant that is desired, and then inserting the genetically modified cells into mouse embryos. The resulting “chimeric” mice are composed partly of host cells and partly of the donor’s embryonic stem cells. As long as some of the chimeric mice have germ cells (sperm or eggs) derived from the embryonic stem cells, it is possible to breed a line of mice that have the same genetic constitution as the embryonic stem cells and therefore the genetic modification that in was done in vitro. This method has been used to produce thousands of new genetic lines of mice. In many such genetic lines, individual genes have been deleted to study their biological function; in others, genes were introduced that have the same mutations that are found in various human genetic diseases. These “mouse models” for human disease are used in research to investigate the pathology of the disease and new methods of therapy.

An extensive experience with mouse embryonic stem cells made it possible for scientists to grow human embryonic stem cells from early human embryos, and the first human stem cell line was created in 1998. but they do not require LIF for their maintenance. Human embryonic stem cells form a wide variety of differentiated tissues in vitro, and they form teratomas when transplanted into immunosuppressed mice. It is not known whether the cells can colonize all tissues of a human embryo, but it is assumed from their other properties that they are indeed pluripotent cells, and they are therefore considered a possible source of differentiated cells for cell therapy – the replacement. of a patient’s defective cell type with healthy cells. Large quantities of cells, such as dopamine-secreting neurons for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells for the treatment of diabetes, could be produced from embryonic stem cells for cell transplantation. Cells for this purpose were previously only available from sources in very limited supply, such as pancreatic beta cells obtained from the cadavers of human organ donors.

The use of human embryonic stem cells avoids ethical concerns because the blastocyst stage embryos are destroyed in the process of obtaining the stem cells. The embryos from which stem cells were obtained are produced by in-vitro fertilization, and people who consider preimplantation human embryos to be human generally believe that such work is morally wrong. Others accept it because they consider blastocysts to be simple balls of cells, and human cells used in laboratories have not previously been assigned a special moral or legal status. Moreover, it is known that none of the cells of the inner cell mass is exclusively destined to become part of the embryo itself – all the cells contribute some or all of their cell offspring to the placenta, which was also not specifically assigned. legal status. The divergence of opinions on this issue is illustrated by the fact that the use of human embryonic stem cells is permitted in some countries and prohibited in others.

Where Are Stem Cells Found In The Body

In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first clinical trial to test a human embryonic stem cell-based therapy, but the trial was stopped in late 2011 due to a lack of funding and a change in the leading American biotech company Geron’s business directives. . The therapy to be tested was known as GRNOPC1, which consisted of progenitor cells (partially differentiated cells) that, once in the body, mature into neural cells known as oligodendrocytes. The oligodendrocyte progenitors of GRNOPC1 were derived from human embryonic stem cells. The therapy was developed for the restoration of nerve function in persons suffering from acute spinal cord injury.

Stem Cells: A Brief History And Outlook

Embryonic germ (EG) cells, derived from primordial germ cells found in the gonadal crest of a late embryo, have many of the properties of embryonic stem cells. The primordial germ cells in an embryo develop into stem cells that generate reproductive gametes (sperm or eggs) in an adult. In mice and humans, it is possible to grow embryonic germ cells in tissue culture with the appropriate growth factors – namely LIF and another cytokine called fibroblast growth factor. As the smallest unit of structure and function of the human body, stem cells have the ability. to further differentiate into cells of different functions. So, what is the classification and application of stem cells? Let’s have a better understanding of these amazing stem cells!

#Stem cells (SCs) have the self-renewal ability and differentiation potential that arise in the early stage of development of multicellular organisms. SCs can differentiate into several different tissue cells under certain conditions and can be further cultured to develop various tissues and organs in the human body (Figure 1). Currently, SCs are widely used in the fields of cell therapy, organ transplantation, cosmetic anti-aging, neurodegenerative disease modeling, and drug screening [ 1 , 2 ].

According to the source, stem cells can be classified as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells (ASCs) [3]. ESCs have the potential to differentiate into cells of three germ layers due to their much higher re-differentiation ability than adult stem cells, with the ectoderm mainly forming the epidermis and the nervous system, the mesoderm continuing into the dermis, muscles, bones and other developments. Connective tissue and circulatory system in the body, and the endoderm continues to form the epithelial tissue of various organs. Somatic stem cells or adult stem cells are tissue-specific, present in different parts of the developing body. These are undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into different cells in the body, replenish dead cells through cell division and proliferation, and regenerate damaged tissues, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), germline stem cells (GSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). ), perinatal stem cells (PSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), retinal stem cells (RSCs), cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and other cell types (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Adult stem cells: The main types of adult stem cells in the human body and the direction of terminal differentiation are shown.

What Cells In The Human Body Live The Longest?

According to the

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