What Is The Role Of Vitamin D – Abundance of Tocopherol Isoforms and Novel Associations with Vitamins Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism: Results from an Elderly Sample of a Health Line Cohort
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- 1 What Is The Role Of Vitamin D
- 2 Vitamin D’s Link To Autism
- 3 Remembered To Take Your Vitamins? How Vitamin D Can Affect Your Brain
- 4 Evidences Suggesting A Possible Role Of Vitamin D In Covid 19: The Missing Link Singh S, Singh C M, Ranjan A, Kumar S, Singh Dk
What Is The Role Of Vitamin D
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Vitamin D Prevents Cognitive Decline And Enhances Hippocampal Synaptic Function In Aging Rats
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Vitamin D’s Link To Autism
University Department of Public and Parental Health, School of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
We are currently facing a global vitamin D deficiency epidemic (VITD). Athletes have the same tendency for low vitamin D, with most concentrations below 20 ng/mL in different sports, especially in the winter months. Vitamin D is important for bone health, but recent studies also show its role in many other functions, including skeletal muscle growth, cardiovascular function and metabolism, which affect athletic performance. Vitamin D can also work with special tissues to repair injury and have an anti-inflammatory effect. The data presented in this paper led to further investigation of the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D and supplementation may be beneficial to the physical and muscle function of athletes, benefiting their performance and preventing future injuries. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest research on the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency and its effects on athletic performance and muscle health.
In the last decade, the interest in vitamin D deficiency (VITD) research has increased significantly, mainly due to the increasing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the population and the association between VITD deficiency and various diseases [1, 2, 3]. The role and metabolism of vitamin D in living organisms is emerging. VITD plays an important role in immune function, protein synthesis, muscle function, cardiovascular function, inflammatory response, cell growth and muscle regulation [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ].
Regarding vitamin D and its role in athletes, a significant body of research on its effects on bone health, muscle resistance and sports performance is currently ongoing [6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
Vitamin D Supplementation And Immune Related Markers: An Update From Nutrigenetic And Nutrigenomic Studies
First, athletes may have sufficient levels of VITD. However, recent research shows that this theory is incorrect. Over the past decade, the scientific community has studied VITD levels in different groups of athletes including runners, basketball players, cyclists, gymnasts and dancers, showing that these levels in athletes are comparable to the general population. in general. However, recent literature shows that these levels will depend mainly on the location, as well as the type of sport, whether indoor or outdoor, etc. A very interesting line is the effect of VITD deficiency on athlete’s disease [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Vitamin deficiency is generally prevalent in the sports population in addition to its associated diseases, including the occurrence of osteomalacia and osteoporosis [10, 11, 12]. Given the prevalence of its deficiency and its potential for morbidity, determining the level of VITD in athletes is considered as part of the evaluation process [7, 10].
In terms of supplementing VITD in athletic athletes, many studies have shown that it increases muscle strength. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with reduced injury and better athletic performance. It is important to recognize that people with vitamin D deficiency need supplements to help improve their performance and prevent future injuries [1, 10, 11].
Finally, there seems to be an inverse relationship between ethnicity and concentration of VITD. For example, white-skinned subjects generally have lower levels of VITD but higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk [ 6 , 12 ].
This review was conducted by searching the medical and scientific literature available in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Nutrition, endocrinology, biology, biochemistry, orthopedics, sports and toxicology journals, among others, were analyzed as well as extensive literature reviews, conference proceedings, and government publications.
The Potential Role Of Vitamin D Supplementation As A Gut Microbiota Modifier In Healthy Individuals
On the one hand, VITD is a micronutrient, because its deficiency can be treated with supplements, and with prohormones, seeing that its precursors are converted into active metabolites. It comes in two biologically inactive forms, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) [2, 4, 13].
Vitamin D is mainly synthesized in the skin. Cholecalciferol, or vitamin D3, is the primary source of endogenous VITD and is produced through the interaction of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation after sun exposure with 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is stored inside the plasma membrane of each skin cell. . Ergocalciferol, or vitamin D2, represents a small percentage and is derived from dietary intake [14, 15, 16]. Vitamin D is difficult to obtain through diet because very few foods contain the vitamin naturally, except for fatty fish liver, mushrooms and eggs, etc. Supplementing or fortifying with vitamins D2 and D3, such as milk and other dairy products, cereals, etc., currently means to provide extra nutrients [14, 16].
VITD obtained from the sun, food or supplements is biologically inert and must undergo two hydroxylations in the body to be active, the first is done in the dark by the CYP2R1 enzyme where it is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol). The second is produced in the kidneys and other organs by the enzyme CYP27B1 to make 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its active form in life. The active metabolite of vitamin D is transported in the blood by vitamin D-binding protein D (BPD), which reaches many skeletal and extra-skeletal tissues. In fact, the CYP27B1 enzyme is found in many cells of the body to allow the synthesis of calcitriol. In addition, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is found in many tissues [15, 16, 17, 18].
The metabolism of VITD and its function in different systems of the human body are shown in Figure 1 .
Remembered To Take Your Vitamins? How Vitamin D Can Affect Your Brain
The action of VITD is carried out in the body through two pathways through endocrine and autocrine [19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. The endocrine system is a well-studied mechanism that works by increasing intestinal calcium absorption and osteoclastic activity. Vitamin D is important for bone growth, density and regeneration [13, 18, 21, 22, 23]. When vitamin D drops below normal levels, PTH increases bone density to replenish the body’s calcium. This means that low levels of VITD lead to increased bone mass and an increased risk of bone injuries such as stress fractures, which are more common in athletes.
A second mechanism of action of vitamin D involves the autocrine pathway. Although not well known, this pathway is very important because it accommodates many of the important processes of biological evolution, such as signaling, expression and response of genes, proteins, immune/inflammatory enzymes, changes and synthesis. Without VITD, the ability to respond effectively to physiological and pathological symptoms would be completely altered [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ]. This vitamin acts as a modulator of about 2000 genes involved in cell growth, immune function and protein synthesis [15, 21, 23].
The autocrine pathway appears to be the most important in the action of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function. VITD receptor targets have been identified in all tissues of the body. VDR regulates the expression of hundreds of physiological functions. The discovery of VDR in the nerve indicates the importance of the role of VITD in the nervous system [19, 20, 21, 22, 23].
Currently, the current theory is that sufficient vitamin D in the blood is necessary for proper metabolism
Evidences Suggesting A Possible Role Of Vitamin D In Covid 19: The Missing Link Singh S, Singh C M, Ranjan A, Kumar S, Singh Dk
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