What Is The Main Purpose Of Nucleic Acids – A nucleic acid is a biological polymer or biopolymer that is essential for life and consists of nitrogen bases, 5-carbon sugar (pentose) and phosphate groups. The two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA. They are “nucleic acids” because DNA is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and chemically is an acid. Nucleic acids carry the genetic information of all organisms and direct protein synthesis.
There are three types of DNA and different types of RNA. Here are some examples of these nucleic acids:
- 1 What Is The Main Purpose Of Nucleic Acids
- 2 Nucleic Acid Sequence
- 3 What Is The Function Of Nucleic Acids?
What Is The Main Purpose Of Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA are therefore the two classes of nucleic acids that occur in nature. But biochemists also synthesize artificial nucleic acid analogs. The synthetic molecules differ from DNA or RNA mainly in the composition of their backbone.
Nucleic Acid Preparation
A nucleic acid is a polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers linked together. Each nucleotide consists of three parts:
Each base has a ring structure and is classified based on its structure and a purine or a pyrimidine. The purines are adenine and guanine, while the pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine (in DNA) and uracil (in RNA). Purines and pyrimidines form bonds with each other, with adenine (A) binding to thymine (T) or uracil (U) and guanine (G) binding to cytosine (C).
The 5-carbon or pentose sugar is located between the nitrogen base and the phosphate group. In DNA the sugar is 2′-deoxyribose. In RNA the sugar is ribose. The carbon atoms of the sugar are numbered 1′, 2′, 3′, 4′ and 5′. The base attaches to the 1′ carbon of the sugar, while the phosphate attaches to the 5′ carbon.
The phosphate group attaches to the pentose sugar. Together, the sugar and phosphate groups form the backbone of the DNA or RNA helix. Although a nucleotide has 1, 2 or 3 phosphate groups, it has only one phosphate group in a nucleic acid.
Nucleic Acid Sequence
Nucleic acids have a spiral shape (with some exceptions in RNA). DNA forms a double helix, while RNA usually forms a single helix. The phosphate of one nucleotide links to the OH group on the 3′ carbon of the sugar of the next nucleotide. This compound is an ester linkage. The process repeats, forming a backbone of alternative phosphate and sugar subunits. The purines and pyrimidines branch off the backbone.
The backbone has a “direction” because one end has a free sugar (the 3′ end), while the other end has a free phosphate group (the 5′ end). The two strands of a DNA helix are antiparallel, so the 3′ end of one strand lies opposite the 5′ end of the other strands, with the bases connected in between. By convention, chemists read the code of a nucleic acid, starting with the 5′ end. So a genetic code of guanine, thymine, adenine and cytosine is 5′-dG-dT-dA-dC-3′ or simply GTAC. They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomer components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base. The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). If the sugar is ribose, the polymer is RNA; if the sugar is deoxyribose, a version of ribose, the polymer is DNA.
Nucleic acids are chemical compounds that occur in nature. They carry information in cells and form getic material. These acids are common in all living things, where they create, encode and store information in every living cell of every life form on Earth. In turn, they collect and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus. From the inner workings of the cell to the offspring of a living thing, they contain and provide information through the nucleic acid sequence. This gives the RNA and DNA their unmistakable ‘ladder-step’ sequence of nucleotides in their molecules. Both play a crucial role in controlling protein synthesis.
Strings of nucleotides are linked to form helical backbones and assembled into chains of bases or base pairs chosen from the five primary, or canonical, nucleobases. RNA usually forms a chain of single bases, while DNA forms a chain of base pairs. The bases found in RNA and DNA are: adine, cytosine, guanine, thymine and uracil. Thymine is only found in DNA and uracil only in RNA. Using amino acids and protein synthesis,
Locked Nucleic Acids
The specific sequence in the DNA of these nucleobase pairs helps maintain and SD encoded instructions as ges. In RNA, sequencing base pairs helps make new proteins that control most chemical processes of all life forms.
Swiss scientist Friedrich Miescher discovered nucleic acid and first called it nuclein, in 1868. He later put forward the idea that it might be involved in heredity.
Nucleic acid was first discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869 at the University of Tübing, Germany. He gave his first name as Nuclein.
In the early 1880s, Albrecht Kossel further purified the substance and discovered its highly acidic properties. Later he also identified the nucleobases. In 1889, Richard Altmann created the term nucleic acid – at that time there was no distinction between DNA and RNA.
Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure
In 1944, the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment showed that DNA is the carrier of genetic information and in 1953 Watson and Crick proposed the double helix structure of DNA.
Experimental studies of nucleic acids are an important part of modern biological and medical research, providing a foundation for gome and forsic science, and the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.
The term nucleic acid is the general name for DNA and RNA, members of a family of biopolymers,
And is synonymous with polynucleotide. Nucleic acids were named because of their first discovery in the nucleus, and because of the presence of phosphate groups (related to phosphoric acid).
Chapter 4: Dna, Rna, And The Human Genome
Although they were first discovered in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, they are now known to be found in all life forms, including bacteria, archaea, mitochondria, chloroplasts and viruses (there is debate as to whether viruses are living or non- being alive). All living cells contain both DNA and RNA (except some cells such as mature red blood cells), while viruses contain either DNA or RNA, but usually not both.
The basic component of biological nucleic acids is the nucleotide, each of which contains a ptose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group and a nucleobase.
Nucleic acids are usually very large molecules. DNA molecules are probably the largest individual molecules we know. Well-studied biological nucleic acid molecules range in size from 21 nucleotides (small interfering RNA) to large chromosomes (human chromosome 1 is a single molecule containing 247 million base pairs).
However, there are numerous exceptions: some viruses have gomes made of double-stranded RNA, and other viruses have single-stranded DNA gomes.
What Is The Function Of Nucleic Acids?
Nucleic acids are linear polymers (chains) of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three components: a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase (sometimes called a nitrogen base or simply a base), a ptose sugar, and a phosphate group that makes the molecule acidic. The substructure consisting of a nucleobase plus sugar is called a nucleoside. Nucleic acid types differ in the structure of the sugar in their nucleotides: DNA contains 2′-deoxyribose, while RNA contains ribose (the only difference being the presence of a hydroxyl group). Also, the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine is found in DNA and uracil is found in RNA.
The sugars and phosphates in nucleic acids are linked together in an alternating chain (sugar-phosphate backbone) via phosphodiester bonds.
In conventional nomenclature, the carbon atoms to which the phosphate groups attach are the 3′-d and the 5′-d carbons of the sugar. This gives nucleic acids directionality, and the ds of nucleic acid molecules are called 5′-d and 3′-d. The nucleobases are linked to the sugars via an N-glycosidic bond involving a nitrog of the nucleobase ring (N-1 for pyrimidines and N-9 for purines) and the 1′ carbon of the ptose sugar ring.
Non-standard nucleosides are also found in both RNA and DNA and usually arise from modification of the standard nucleosides in the DNA molecule or the primary (initial) RNA transcript. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules contain an extremely large number of modified nucleosides.
Type Of Therapeutic Nucleic Acids. A Wide Variety Of Therapeutic…
Double-stranded nucleic acids are made up of complementary sequences, in which extensive Watson-Crick base pairing results in a highly repetitive and fairly uniform double-helical three-dimensional structure of nucleic acid.
In contrast, single-stranded RNA and DNA molecules are not limited to a regular double helix, and can adopt very complex three-dimensional structures based on short stretches of intramolecular base pair sequences, including both Watson-Crick and non-canonical base pairs. and a wide range of complex tertiary interactions.
Nucleic acid molecules are usually unbranched and can exist as linear and circular molecules. For example, bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, mitochondrial DNA, and chloroplast DNA are usually circular double-stranded DNA molecules, while chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus are usually linear double-stranded DNA molecules.
Most RNA molecules are linear, single-stranded molecules, but both circular and branched molecules can result from RNA splicing reactions.
Nucleic Acids Based Polyelectrolyte Complexes: Their Complexation Mechanism, Morphology, And Stability
The total amount of pyrimidines in a double-stranded DNA molecule is equal to the total amount of purines. The diameter of the helix is approximately 20 Å.
One DNA or RNA molecule differs from another mainly in the sequence of nucleotides. Nucleotide sequences are of great importance in biology because they contain the ultimate instructions that encode all biological molecules, molecular
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