What Is The Main Function For The Nervous System – The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are protected by bones, membranes, and fluid. The brain is held in the cranial cavity of the skull and it is made up of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The nerves involved are the cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
The nervous system has three main functions: sensory input, data integration and motor output. Sensory input is when the body gathers information or data, through neurons, glia and synapses. The nervous system is made up of excitable nerve cells (neurons) and synapses that form between neurons and connect them to centers throughout the body or to other neurons. These neurons act by excitation or inhibition, and although nerve cells vary in size and location, their communication with each other determines their function. These nerves conduct impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. The data is then processed through the process of data integration, which only happens in the brain. After the brain processes the information, impulses are conducted from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands, called motor output. Glia cells are found inside tissues and are not stimulated but help with myelination, ionic regulation and extracellular fluid.
What Is The Main Function For The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of two major parts, or subdivisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the “control center” of the body. The CNS has various centers located within it that carry out sensory, motor and data integration. These centers can be divided into Lower Centers (including the spinal cord and brain stem) and Higher centers that communicate with the brain through effects.
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The PNS is an extensive network of spinal and cranial nerves connected to the brain and spinal cord. It contains sensory receptors that help process changes in the internal and external environment. This information is sent to the CNS via afferent sensory nerves. The PNS is then divided into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. Autonomic has involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and heart muscle. Somatic has voluntary control of the skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscles. The two systems work together, with nerves from the PNS entering and becoming part of the CNS, and vice versa.
The central nervous system (CNS) represents the largest part of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Along with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), it plays a fundamental role in controlling behavior.
If the central nervous system is damaged or the peripheral nerves are trapped, different effects are possible. It can increase or decrease the function of your internal organs, it can affect your facial expressions, i.e. you may frown a lot, your smile may change, your lungs may be overworked, or underworked, lung capacity may increase or decrease, your bladder may be full, but you are no longer urinate, your bowels will become lapsed and you will not be able to clean them completely with each bowel movement, the muscles in your arms, legs and body will become weaker and fatter, not from lack of use, but from the nerves that run from your spine to them are prevented from working properly, you can suffer from headaches, earaches, sore throats, blocked sinuses. Even your ability to orgasm can be affected.
The CNS is conceived as a system dedicated to information processing, where an appropriate motor output is calculated in response to a sensory input. Several strands of research suggest that motor activity exists before the maturation of sensory systems, and that the senses only influence behavior without dictating it. This brings forth the concept of the CNS as an autonomous system.
Peripheral Nervous System (pns): Parts And Function
Neurons are highly specialized for processing and transmitting cellular signals. Due to the diversity of functions performed by neurons in different parts of the nervous system, there is, as expected, a wide variation in the shape, size, and electrochemical properties of neurons. For example, the soma of a neuron can vary in size from 4 to 100 micrometers in diameter.
The soma (cell body) is the central part of the neuron. It contains the nucleus of the cell, and is therefore where most protein synthesis takes place. The nucleus ranges from 3 to 18 micrometers in diameter. The dendrites of a neuron are cellular extensions with many branches, and metaphorically this overall shape and structure is called a dendritic tree. This is where most of the neuron’s input occurs. However, the outflow of information (ie, from dendrites to other neurons) can also occur—except at the chemical synapse where the backflow of the impulse is prevented by the fact that the axon has no chemoreceptors and the dendrites cannot secrete of chemical neurotransmitters. This explains the one-way conduction of nerve impulses.
The axon is a finer, cable-like projection that can extend tens, hundreds, or even tens of thousands of times the diameter of the soma in length. The axon carries nerve signals from the soma (and also carries certain types of information back to it). Many neurons have only one axon, but this axon can—and often does—undergo extensive branching, enabling communication with many target cells.
The part of the axon where it exits from the soma is called the axon hillock. Besides being an anatomical structure, the axon hillock is also the part of the neuron with the greatest density of voltage-dependent sodium channels. This makes it the most easily-excited part of the neuron and the spike initiation zone for the axon: in neurological terms it has the largest hyperpolarized action potential threshold. While the axon and axon hillock are generally associated with information flow, this region can also receive input from other neurons as well.
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The axon terminal is a specialized structure at the end of the axon that is used to release neurotransmitter chemicals and communicate with target neurons. Although the canonical view of the neuron identifies dedicated functions of different anatomical parts, dendrites and axons often behave in ways that contradict their so-called primary functions.
Axons and dendrites in the central nervous system are usually only about one micrometer thick, while others in the peripheral nervous system are much thicker. The soma is usually about 10–25 micrometers in diameter and usually no larger than the cell nucleus it contains. The longest axon of a human motor neuron can be over a meter long, reaching from the base of the spine to the toes. Sensory neurons have axons that run from the toes to the dorsal column, over 1.5 meters in adults. Giraffes have an axon several meters long that runs the entire length of their necks. Much of what is known about axonal function comes from studying the squids giant axon, an ideal experimental preparation because of its relatively large size (0.5-1 millimeters thick, several centimeters long ).
Sensory afferent neurons convey information from tissues and organs to the central nervous system. Efferent neurons transmit signals from the central nervous system to effector cells and are sometimes called motor neurons. Interneurons connect neurons within specific regions of the central nervous system. Afferent and efferent can also refer collectively to neurons that, respectively, carry information to or send information from a region of the brain.
Excitatory neurons stimulate their target postsynaptic neurons or target cells causing them to act. Motor neurons and somatic neurons are all excitatory neurons. Excitatory neurons in the brain are predominantly glutamatergic. Spinal motor neurons, which synapse on muscle cells, use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter. Inhibitory neurons inhibit their target neurons. Inhibitory neurons are also known as short axon neurons, interneurons or microneurons. The output of some brain structures (neostriatum, globus pallidus, cerebellum) is inhibitory. The main inhibitory neurotransmitters are GABA and glycine. Modulatory neurons produce more complex effects called neuromodulation. These neurons use neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin and others. Each synapse receives excitatory and inhibitory signals and the result is determined by adding summation.
Functions Of The Central Nervous System
Watch this video for another introduction to the nervous system. This is the first in a series of nine videos. While you will enjoy all the videos in this series, you only need to watch the first video. The picture you have of the nervous system probably includes the brain, the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord, the extension of the nervous tissue within the vertebral column. In addition, the nervous tissue that extends from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body (nerves) is also part of the nervous system. We can anatomically divide the nervous system into two major regions: the central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the nerves (Figure 12.1.1). The brain is inside the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is inside the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery—which means beyond
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