What Is The Effect Of Pollution On The Environment

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Glish: An overview of the major health effects on humans from some common types of pollution (see Wikipedia:pollution#humanhealth). To discuss the image, see Template Talk:Human Body Diagrams

What Is The Effect Of Pollution On The Environment

What Is The Effect Of Pollution On The Environment

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Effect Of Air Pollution On Plants And Animals

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Water Pollution Experiment

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What Is The Effect Of Pollution On The Environment

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Point Source And Nonpoint Sources Of Pollution

Impact of Air Pollution on Growth of Scots Pine Stands in Poland Based on Dendrochronological Analyzes†

By Longina Chojnacka-Ożga Longina Chojnacka-Ożga Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications * and Wojciech Ożga Wojciech Ożga Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications

The present study is an expanded version of a paper presented at the 1st International Electronics Conference on Forestry (IECF2020) 15-30 November 2020.

What Is The Effect Of Pollution On The Environment

Original submission received: 11 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 18 October 2021

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The aim of this study was to evaluate Scots pine stand degradation caused by pollutants emitted from Zakłądy Azotowe Puławy, one of the largest polluters of the environment in Poland, over 25 years (1966–1990). To assess pollution stress on trees, we chose dendrochronological analysis, outlining three directions for our research: (i) spatio-temporal distribution of tree growth response to air pollution-related stress; (ii) direct and indirect effects of air pollution on tree growth; and (iii) the role of local factors, both environmental and technological, in shaping tree growth responses. Eight Scots pine stands were selected for study, seven plots located in different damage zones and one reference plot in an undamaged stand. We found disruptions to the dynamics of increasing emissions and long-term strong reductions in growth. From 1966 (the beginning of the factory) to the late 1990s, a significant decrease in growth was observed in most trees (75%) studied. The zone of destruction is primarily east and south, away from the pollution source, associated with prevailing winds of the region. By the end of the 1990s, the declining trend had stopped and wide tree-rings were visible. This situation is associated with a drastic reduction in ammonia emissions and an improvement in environmental conditions. However, the growth of damaged trees is lower than that of Scots pine at the reference site due to poor health status and the trees are more sensitive to stressful climatic conditions, especially drought.

Air pollution and climate change are considered major stressors that pose a global threat to forest health and sustainability [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. Interactions between these factors—on the one hand synergistic and on the other antagonistic—resulting in direct and indirect changes in forest ecosystems have been described in many studies over the past few decades [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. The synergistic, mutually reinforcing interaction of these factors has an overall negative impact on the metabolic and physiological processes of trees [12]. High concentrations of air pollutants (mainly SO

) can damage trees directly through foliage and indirectly through soil [1, 3]. Common symptoms include photosynthetic and stomatal conductance disturbances, changes in carbon dioxide allocation and water use efficiency, and leaf loss. The mechanism and consequences of the influence of toxic chemicals on the course of physiological processes in plants have been described in many studies [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. In addition, the deposition of pollutants affects the way trees respond to other abiotic and biotic stresses, an example being drought and increased susceptibility to pathogen attacks [19].

Global warming is causing an increase in extreme weather events, especially in severe droughts – abnormally high temperatures [20]. Increasingly, trees are exposed to water stress, which can cause physiological damage [21]. Contaminant deposition weakens trees and, at the same time, exposes them to secondary stress (insects, diseases or fire) due to adverse weather conditions. Interactions between these factors cause a gradual decrease in tree vigor and growth, which in extreme cases can lead to the destruction of trees or certain tree species and changes in the ecosystem [22]. According to Mannion [22], air pollution can be a factor that both precedes forest dieback and initiates this process. A schematic view of the combined impact of air pollution, climate conditions and pathogens is presented in Figure 1.

Effects Of Pollution On Human Health

Although there have been significant changes in recent decades in the chemistry, concentration and geographic distribution of air pollutants (reduction of SOX emissions by 80% and NOX emissions by 30%), the impact of these pollutants on the structure and function of forest ecosystems is still observed [3, 6, 16, 18, 19, 23]. , 24]. A significant portion of forest ecosystems are at risk due to excessive deposition of nitrogen compounds (ammonia NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) [3, 17, 23, 24, 25].

Several biochemical, physiological and morphological methods are used to assess the pollution stress of trees [14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 26]. Among morphological methods, the most common approach is tree-ring analysis [27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35]. Retrospective analysis of annual ring widths and other tree-ring parameters (e.g., wood chemical composition, stable isotopes) makes it possible to obtain information on ecosystem status at high time resolution. Therefore, tree rings are often used to assess the long-term effects of air pollution on the environment [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38]. These studies show that trees growing in polluted environments have narrow increases or extreme cases

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