What Causes Low Sodium In A Person – Sodium is an electrolyte that plays an important role in regulating the level of water and other substances in the body. A low sodium level is less than 135 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). As the condition worsens, people may experience the following symptoms:
Severe hyponatremia occurs when levels fall below 125 mEq/L. Health problems caused by very low sodium levels can be serious.
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What Causes Low Sodium In A Person
People who develop symptoms of hyponatremia or are at risk for hyponatremia should see their doctor immediately, as they may require emergency medical attention. People with symptoms such as seizures, vomiting or loss of consciousness need immediate attention. They should call an ambulance or visit the best internal medicine doctor in Gurgaon. To diagnose low sodium, your doctor will take a history, perform a physical exam, and order blood tests. If your blood test shows low sodium levels, your doctor will do additional tests to determine the cause.
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If the underlying cause of hyponatremia is a medical condition or hormonal disorder, people will need additional treatment. For example, people with kidney, liver, or heart problems may receive medication or may need surgery. Kidney problems often require dialysis, and people with heart or liver disease may need a transplant.
An internist can treat people with mild to moderate hyponatremia with medications or lifestyle factors to raise sodium to normal levels:
People with severe symptoms often require hospitalization and intravenous (IV) sodium therapy to normalize sodium levels. They may also need drugs to treat seizures or other symptoms of hyponatremia. Hypovolemia often refers to a low volume of extracellular fluid (ECF), which includes decreased water and sodium levels. To maintain body functions and maintain homeostasis (ie, a state of relative equilibrium), the body requires a certain amount of blood and other body fluids. An imbalance caused by hypovolemia leads to a decrease in ECF volume, which can adversely affect multiple organ systems. For example, the heart may beat faster to compensate for low ECF.
Hypovolemia is usually caused by various organ dysfunctions, such as heart failure or kidney failure. Rarely, neurologic disorders, especially those affecting the hormones that regulate kidney function, can also cause hypovolemia.
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Another common cause of hypovolemia is dehydration, which can result from excessive evaporation of water from the skin during extreme heat or fever. Dehydration can also result from persistent vomiting or diarrhea without adequate fluid intake, usually associated with infections that cause gastroenteritis.
Hypovolemia can also result from excessive accumulation of fluid in the intercellular space. For example, when an infection is severe, sepsis can occur, a life-threatening condition in which a person’s response to an infection leads to organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation. In turn, fluids begin to flow into the interstitial space, thus causing hypovolemia. Other conditions that can cause extravasation of fluid include pancreatitis, pericarditis, burns, and nutritional hypoalbuminemia.
Finally, hypovolemia can result from sudden blood loss due to trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a height. External or internal bleeding can occur and can be life-threatening if not detected quickly.
Common symptoms of hypovolemia include weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and thirst. Other more serious symptoms may include low urine output (ie, oliguria), cyanosis, characterized by a bluish discoloration of the skin from poor circulation, abdominal or chest pain, confusion, or loss of consciousness.
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Many clinical signs can be found during the examination. Some reliable indicators include an increase in heart rate of 15 to 20 beats per minute while standing (ie, orthostatic tachycardia) or a drop in blood pressure of 10 to 20 mmHg while standing (ie, orthostatic hypotension). Additionally, a decrease in jugular venous pressure (JVP) may indicate hypovolemia.
Severe cases can lead to hypovolemic shock, which occurs when the heart does not have enough fluid to pump effectively. This condition requires immediate medical attention, as organ damage can occur if they do not receive enough blood to function. Hypovolemic shock is characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, peripheral hypoperfusion and peripheral vasoconstriction. If hypovolemic shock occurs as a result of blood loss, it is called hemorrhagic shock, and if it is due to sepsis, it is called septic shock.
Hypovolemia is diagnosed after a medical evaluation that includes evaluation of signs and symptoms, medical and family history, and physical examination. Blood and urine tests are often followed, including a complete blood count and a chemistry panel (ie, blood tests that include electrolytes, liver, and kidney function). Individuals with renal causes of hypovolemia often have elevated BUN, creatinine, urine sodium concentration, and urine pH. Blood tests can also indicate the possible development of acid-base disorders such as metabolic acidosis in people with diarrhea. Individuals in hypovolemic shock may have hepatic or cardiac ischemia, often detected by a chemistry panel and cardiac biomarkers (eg, myocardial lactate extraction). Additional diagnostic tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, may be performed depending on the suspected underlying cause.
Treatment for hypovolemia varies depending on the underlying cause, but the goal is always to restore fluid balance and replace ongoing fluid loss. In mild cases, people are usually treated with oral hydration and a maintenance diet that increases sodium and vitamin intake. In more severe cases, modified intravenous fluids are administered depending on the underlying condition. Typically, people take isotonic saline, which is a mixture of sodium chloride and water that has the normal concentration of sodium chloride in the human body. However, other choices vary depending on the nutritional composition of the individual’s blood. For example, a person with elevated sodium levels (ie, hypernatremia) and who has lost both water and salt will usually receive hypotonic saline, which is a mixture of sodium chloride and water, with less sodium chloride than is found in humans. body. In addition, people who have lost blood from bleeding often receive blood transfusions. Other treatments may be needed to treat the underlying cause, such as drugs for heart failure or dialysis for kidney failure.
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Hypovolemia is a condition characterized by low blood or fluid levels in the body. There are many causes, including medical conditions such as kidney disease, dehydration, excessive accumulation of fluid between cells, and trauma. Common symptoms of hypovolemia include weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and thirst. Hypovolemia is diagnosed after a thorough medical examination, followed by blood and urine tests. Hypovolemia is usually treated with increased fluid intake either orally or intravenously and with any specific treatment for the underlying condition. In addition, people who experience bleeding often have blood transfusions.
Bhat L., & Humphries, R.L. (2017). Neurological emergencies. Stone C., & Humphries R.L. (Eds.), Current diagnosis and treatment: Emergency medicine (8th ed.). McGraw Hill.
Mount, D.B. (2018). Hypovolemia. Jameson, J., Fauci, A.S., Kasper, D.L., Hauser, S.L., Longo, D.L. and Loscalzo, J. (eds.), Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (20th ed.). McGraw Hill.
Segal, A. (2017). Disorders of extracellular volume: hypovolemia and hypervolemia. Lerma E.V., Rosner M.H., & Perazella M.A. (Eds.), Current diagnosis and treatment: nephrology and hypertension (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill. What are electrolytes? Electrolytes are nutrients (or chemicals) known to have many important functions in your body, from regulating your heartbeat to allowing your muscles to contract so you can move.
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The main electrolytes in the body are calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphate and chloride. Because these essential nutrients help stimulate nerves and balance fluid levels throughout the body, electrolyte imbalances can cause a variety of serious adverse symptoms, including some that can be fatal.
You get electrolytes from eating different foods and drinking certain liquids, and you lose some of them through exercise, sweating, going to the bathroom, and urinating. (1) For the same reason, poor diet, too little or too much exercise, and illness are some possible causes of electrolyte imbalance.
Electrolytes are found in body fluids, including urine, blood, and sweat. Electrolytes get their name because they literally have an “electrical charge.” (2) When they dissolve in water, they dissociate into positively and negatively charged ions.
An important reason for this is the way nerve reactions occur. Your nerves signal each other through a chemical exchange process that relies on oppositely charged ions both outside and inside your cells.
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Electrolyte imbalances can be caused by several different factors, including short-term illnesses, medications, dehydration, and chronic disorders. (3) Some common causes of electrolyte imbalance are due to fluid loss, which can be caused by:
Because electrolytes have different roles in the body, an imbalance usually causes significant changes in how you feel quickly. Depending on the type of electrolyte imbalance you are experiencing, you may experience a number of symptoms, including:
To diagnose an electrolyte imbalance, a doctor may perform several different tests to determine electrolyte levels. Your healthcare provider will likely discuss your medical history, recurring symptoms, and with you
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