What Are The Use Of Stem Cells – Stem cells are important to living organisms for many reasons. In a 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lungs, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells lost through normal wear and tear, injury or disease.
Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potential for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, there is still much work to be done in the laboratory and clinic to understand how to use these cells for cell-based therapy to treat disease, which is also referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.
- 1 What Are The Use Of Stem Cells
- 2 Stem Cell Therapy
- 3 Scientists Use Stem Cells To Create Models Of Pre Embryos
What Are The Use Of Stem Cells
Laboratory studies of stem cells allow scientists to learn about important properties of cells and what differentiates them from specific cell types. Scientists are already using stem cells in the laboratory to screen new drugs and develop model systems to study normal growth and identify the causes of birth defects.
Researchers Use Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells To Grow Hairy Skin
Research into stem cells continues to advance knowledge of how organisms develop from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell research is one of the most exciting areas of contemporary biology, but, like many emerging areas of scientific research, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as quickly as it generates new discoveries.
Some stem cells, such as adult bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells, have been used in clinical therapy for over 40 years. Other therapies that use stem cells include skin replacement from adult stem cells harvested from hair follicles that have been grown in culture to produce skin grafts. Other clinical trials for neuronal damage/disease have also been conducted using neural stem cells. There are side effects that accompany this study and further investigation is warranted. Although there is much research to be carried out in the future, this study gives us hope for a therapeutic future with stem cell research.
Bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation has been used for over 40 years as a therapy for blood disorders such as leukemia and lymphoma, among others. Scientists have also shown that stem cells reside in most body tissues and research continues to learn how to identify, extract and propagate these cells for further use in therapy. Scientists hope to develop therapies for diseases such as type I diabetes and heart muscle repair following a heart attack.
Scientists have also shown that there is potential in reprogramming ASCs to cause them to transdifferentiate (turn into a different type of cell from the resident tissue they are replenished with).
What Are The Potential Uses Of Human Stem Cells?
There is potential with ESC to treat certain diseases in the future. Scientists continue to learn how ESCs differentiate and when these methods are better understood, the hope is to use the knowledge to get ESCs to differentiate into the cells of choice needed for patient therapy. Diseases targeted with ESC therapy include diabetes, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophy, heart disease and vision/hearing loss.
Therapy using iPSCs is attractive because recipient somatic cells can be reprogrammed to an “ESC-like” state. Then the mechanism to differentiate these cells can be used to generate the cells in need. This attracts the attention of doctors because it avoids histocompatibility issues and life-long immunosuppression, which is necessary if the transplant uses donor stem cells.
IPS cells mimic most of the properties of ESCs because they are pluripotent cells, but currently do not carry the ethical baggage of ESC research and use because iPS cells cannot be manipulated to develop the outer layer of embryonic cells necessary for cell development into humans. Are you confused about all types Different stem cells? Read on for where the different types of stem cells come from, their potential for use in therapy, and why some types of stem cells are shrouded in controversy.
Researchers are working on new ways to use stem cells to cure diseases and heal injuries. more about unlocking the potential of stem cells.
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Somatic stem cells (also called adult stem cells) exist naturally in the body. They are essential for growth, healing, and replacing cells lost through daily wear and tear.
Stem cells from blood and bone marrow are routinely used as treatments for blood-related diseases. However, in nature somatic stem cells can be only a subset of related cell types. Bone marrow stem cells, for example, differentiate primarily into blood cells. This partial differentiation can be an advantage when you want to produce blood cells; but it is a disadvantage if you are interested in producing unrelated cell types.
Most types of somatic stem cells are present in low abundance and are difficult to isolate and grow in culture. Isolation of some types can cause tissue or large organ damage, such as in the heart or brain. Somatic stem cells can be transplanted from a donor to a patient, but without drugs that suppress the immune system, the patient’s immune system will recognize the transplanted cells as foreign and attack them.
Therapies involving somatic stem cells are not controversial; however, it is subject to the same ethical considerations that apply to all medical procedures.
Stem Cell Therapy
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are formed as a normal part of embryonic development. They can be isolated from early embryos and grown in dishes.
ES cells have the potential to become any type of cell in the body, making them a promising source of cells to treat many diseases.
Without drugs that suppress the immune system, the patient’s immune system will recognize the transplanted cells as foreign and attack them.
When scientists isolate human embryonic stem (hES) cells in the laboratory, they destroy the embryo. These ethical and legal implications have made some reluctant to support research involving hES cells. In recent years, several researchers have focused their efforts on creating stem cells that do not require the destruction of embryos.
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More about the controversy behind embryonic stem cells and why new stem cell technology could end it. The Stem Cell Debate: Is It Over?
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are created artificially in the laboratory by “reprogramming” the patient’s own cells. iPS cells can be made from existing cells including fat, skin and fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue).
Mouse iPS cells can be any cell in the body (or even a whole mouse). Although more analysis is needed, the same is true for human iPS cells, making them a promising cell source for treating many diseases. Importantly, because iPS cells can be made from the patient’s own cells, there is no danger that their immune system will reject them.
IPS cells are much cheaper to create than ES cells produced through therapeutic cloning (another type of patient-specific stem cell; see below). However, because the process of “reprogramming” introduces genetic modifications, the safety of using iPS cells in patients is uncertain.
Possible Uses And Advances For In Vitro Studies And Clinical…
Therapeutic cloning could, in theory, generate ES cells with the potential to become any type of cell in the body. In addition, because these cells are made from the patient’s own DNA, there is no danger of rejection by the immune system.
In 2013, for the first time, a group of researchers used therapeutic cloning to create ES cells. The donor nucleus comes from a child with a rare genetic disorder. However, the cloning process remains time consuming, inefficient and expensive.
Therapeutic cloning carries great ethical considerations. It involves creating human clones and destroying cloned embryos, and it requires a human egg donor.
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Scientists Use Stem Cells To Create Models Of Pre Embryos
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Jonathan M.W. Slack Director of the Stem Cell Institute at the University of Minnesota. Author of From Egg to Embryo.
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Stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can divide to produce several daughter cells that persist as stem cells and several cells that are destined to differentiate (become specialized). Stem cells are a continuous source of differentiated cells that form the tissues and organs of animals and plants. There is great interest in stem cells because of their potential in the development of therapies to replace damaged or damaged cells as a result of various disorders and injuries, such as Parkinson’s disease, heart disease and diabetes. over there
Stem Cells: Sources, Types, And Uses
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