What Are The Properties Of Stem Cells

What Are The Properties Of Stem Cells – Stem cells are unique cells that exist in the body and have the potential to differentiate into different cell types or divide indefinitely to produce other stem cells.

All stem cells found in all living systems have three important characteristics. These characteristics can be observed in vitro with a process called a clonogenic assay, in which a single cell is assessed for its ability to differentiate.

What Are The Properties Of Stem Cells

What Are The Properties Of Stem Cells

Figure: Production techniques of embryonic stem cell culture. Image source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Nico Heins et al.)

Hematopoietic Stem Cell

Depending on the source of stem cells or their location, stem cells are divided into different types.

Figure: Advances in iPSC-based therapies. Image source: Nature Reviews Genetics (R. Grant Rowe & George Q. Daley).

Stem cell research has been used in various fields due to their properties. Some common applications of stem cell research include:

There are limitations or challenges in stem cell research due to various ethical and other issues related to stem cell research. Some of these are:

Tamil Solution] (a) What Are The Two Important Properties Of Stem Cel

Anupama Sapkota holds a Bachelor’s degree (B.Sc.) in Microbiology from St. Xavier’s College, Kathmandu, Nepal. He is particularly interested in antibiotic resistance studies with a focus on drug discovery. Neural stem cells that differ in fate potential express distinct patterns of sugars at the cell surface. These sugars contribute to the electrical properties of the neural stem cell membrane and ultimately the fate of the cell. Credit: Lisa Flanagan / UCI School of Medicine

Researchers at the University of California, Irvine, have identified intrinsic cellular properties that influence the fate of neural stem cells and influence the type of brain cell: neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. The discovery could give scientists a new way to predict or control the fate of stem cells and improve their use in transplant therapies.

The study, published today in Stem Cell Reports, was led by Dr. Lisa Flanagan, associate professor of neurology at the UCI School of Medicine, and showed that neural stem cells that differ in fate potential display different patterns of sugars on the cell surface. The electrical properties of the neural stem cell membrane and ultimately contribute to cell fate. “Stem cells hold promise for treating diseases, but it’s difficult to know what a stem cell will become after transplantation,” says Flanagan. We can transplant the same number of stem cells in the same patient, but if the transplanted cells in the first patient become neurons and the cells in the second patient become astrocytes, the results will be significantly different. could predict what a neural stem cell will become and possibly direct the cell’s fate, greatly increasing the success of stem cell transplant therapies for a wide range of diseases.

What Are The Properties Of Stem Cells

In research originally published in 2008, Flanagan and colleagues discovered a new way to identify and sort neural stem cells that have different fates by using the cell’s electrical properties. Based on these findings, they now show that differences in cell surface sugars are the reason cells have different electrical properties.

What Stem Cell Is And Its Use?

In this study, the researchers looked at several pathways that add sugars to cells and found one that differed between cells that make neurons and cells that make astrocytes. They stimulated this pathway in neural stem cells, changing the cell’s electrical properties and causing them to make more astrocytes and fewer neurons, showing that cell-surface sugars can control fate. This pathway is active in cells grown for transplantation and in developing brain cells, so this pathway may control how neural stem cells form neurons and astrocytes as the brain forms during development.

The team is now testing whether modifying this pathway changes how cells behave in transplants or how the developing brain forms. They are focusing on the machinery inside the cell that adds the sugars in the first place to see how the process is regulated. They also found that certain proteins on the cell surface are modified by the pathway, which helped unravel how sugars tell stem cells what type of cell they will become. The long-term goal of these studies is to find ways to improve the effectiveness of stem cell transplants to treat injury and disease.

More information: Zihao Sun et al., Long non-coding RNA Lncenc1 maintains naïve states of mouse ESCs by promoting the glycolytic pathway, Stem Cell Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.08.001

Citation: Research identifies properties of stem cells that determine cell fate (2018, September 6) Retrieved November 18, 2023, from https:///news/2018-09-properties-stem-cells-cell-fate.html

Stem Cells: Basics And Clinical Translation Ebook By

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Once again, the body’s cells are showing unexpected plasticity: In a newly discovered type of wound repair, which some researchers call “paligenosis,” adult cells revert to a more embryonic state.

What Are The Properties Of Stem Cells

Body tissues need new cells to repair and restore themselves after injury. To get them, the researchers are discovering, the tissues sometimes recruit normal adult cells, returning them to the highly proliferative state normally associated with embryos.

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An embryo begins as just a single cell. It doesn’t take long for it to divide into two cells, then four, then eight, and so on—a process characterized by rapid growth, in which these primitive, unspecialized cells proliferate to begin making all the body’s tissues. As development continues, these embryonic (and later embryonic) stem cells become more specialized and differentiate into progenitors of different cell lineages, which in turn give rise to more mature cells: blood cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, intestinal cells. Major functional changes in these tissues continue after birth as the organism adapts to life outside the womb and for the first time uses its lungs to breathe air and its digestive system to process food.

A small number of cell populations retain some of the initial plasticity as mature stem cells and help maintain tissues on a daily basis and heal wounds. Moreover, in recent years, it has become clear that these cells are not the only cells that remain flexible: sometimes, when the repair process calls for it, more specialized cells can go back a few steps, or “dedifferentiate.” . – Enter a stem-like state as well.

But the new results suggest that this plasticity may be even deeper than scientists thought. Three research teams have observed that during tissue regeneration, the usual solutions provided by mature stem cells (and similar dedifferentiated cells) are insufficient. Instead, the cells in the damaged tissue turn the clock back to a more embryonic state, harnessing the proliferative powers that once characterized development—and a program long thought to have been silenced.

In the early 1900s, scientists theorized that the specific types of blood cells they’ve learned to distinguish under the microscope—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets—come from a common, more primitive source: a stem cell. But it wasn’t until the 1950s and 1960s that researchers could provide definitive proof of their existence and begin to map out their unique characteristics.

Ageing, Metabolism And The Intestine

The first stem cells were discovered indirectly from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Medical staff observed that radiation exposure caused a sharp drop in white blood cell counts in survivors, and tests on mice showed that bone marrow transplants could compensate for these losses. Work over the next decades gradually revealed why: a population of cells in the brain can both self-renew and differentiate into different, more specialized blood cell lineages. These were hematopoietic stem cells.

They departed from the behavior of more specialized cells in several key ways. When a differentiated cell divided, it produced two copies of itself—and depending on the type of cell, the number of times it could do so was limited. This was not the case with stem cells isolated from bone

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