Reducing Standby Power Consumption: Strategies For Lowering Energy Bills

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Reducing Standby Power Consumption: Strategies For Lowering Energy Bills

Reducing Standby Power Consumption: Strategies For Lowering Energy Bills

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By Daniel L. Gerber Daniel L. Gerber Scilit Google Scholar 1, * , Alan Meier Alan Meier Scilit Google Scholar 1, Richard Liou Richard Liou Scilit Google Scholar 2 and Robert Hosbach Robert Hosbach Scilit Preprints. org Google Scholar 1

Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019

Pdf) A Study On The Energy Consumption Of The Electrical And Electronic Household And Office Equipment In Standby And Off Mode

Despite technical advances in efficiency, standby devices still consume up to 16% of household electricity. Finding practical, cost-effective discounts is difficult. Although energy consumption per unit has fallen, the number of units continuously drawing energy continues to grow. This work reviews a family of technologies that can eliminate standby consumption in many types of electrical plugs. He also researches several solutions in detail and develops prototypes. First, packet-mode and sleep-mode transistors have been established as building blocks for zero-standby solutions. Then, this work studies the application of two types of wake-up signals. The first is from optical transmission and is applicable to line-of-sight enabled remote-controlled devices such as set-top boxes, ceiling fans and motorized curtains. The second is from a wake-up radio and is applicable to any wireless product. No single technology will address all standby power situations; however, these emerging solutions appear to have broad applicability for saving standby power under various plug loads.

Standby energy consumption from appliances, electrical devices, and other products continues to account for 3–16% (varies by definition and country) of residential electricity use [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 8]. Significant progress in reducing standby consumption in specific products has been achieved through various policies and technologies. For example, technical advances in mobile phone chargers, the most visible manifestation of standby consumption, have allowed off-mode power to decrease from more than 2 W in 2000 to below 0.3 W today. Most new low-voltage power supplies have standby power consumption below 0.5 W, which reflects minimum energy efficiency standards in Europe, California, and elsewhere [9].

However, the past twenty years have seen an explosion in the number of devices that rely on power supplies and draw power continuously. Growth can be attributed to the proliferation of devices that require direct current (DC) power and/or networking, traditional alternating current (AC) powered devices that already have electronics, and battery powered mobile devices. Many of these devices fall into the miscellaneous electrical load (MEL) category, which continues to grow rapidly in terms of both population and energy consumption [10]. At the same time, many more devices require higher functionality to support communications. These devices fall under the broad category of the Internet of Things (IoT).

Reducing Standby Power Consumption: Strategies For Lowering Energy Bills

With the increasing number and variety of standby electronic products, the need to reduce standby power continues to be an important policy and evolving technical challenge. However, as technology advances, there are diminishing potential savings per device combined with an increasing number and variety of electronic products with standby modes. This means that the cost of “saving the last watt” must be extremely low to be justified from a cost perspective. For reference, saving one watt of continuous power corresponds to only 8.8 kWh/year, or about $1.50 at typical US residential electricity rates.

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This work examines various approaches to further reduce or eliminate the standby consumption of plug loads. It then researches several solutions in detail and develops prototypes. Although IEC 62301:2011 [11] considers standby power below 5 mW to be “essentially zero”, this work demonstrates plug-in load solutions with consumption below 10 µW. The sheer variety of standby products means that a single solution is unlikely to emerge. Instead, a portfolio of broadly applicable solutions represents the best way forward, and this work contributes to that portfolio.

The power consumption behavior of a device can be represented as a histogram of the time spent in each power mode. As shown for a desktop computer in Figure 1, many modern devices operate with long continuous periods at low power and short intermittent periods at high power. The area under the stairs corresponds to the annual energy consumption of the device. Our solutions aim to reduce the power and duration of standby modes, in a savings strategy called “shrinking the staircase”.

There are several technical strategies to reduce standby power consumption. The first is to increase the efficiency of the device in various modes, which reduces the overall energy consumption. Another technique involves extending the device to harvest and store ambient energy, which can be used during low-power operation. Finally, modifications in operational design and internal circuitry can significantly reduce or eliminate consumption at various low-power modes. This article focuses on the latter technique.

In certain applications, the device can operate for a certain period of time without mains power [13]. The duration of this period is called “standzero” time [14]. Many mobile devices already have long zero times, and the solutions presented in this document can increase zero times in many other device types.

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The wide variety of standby electronics necessitates the development of a portfolio of solutions. Previous developments have proposed numerous techniques to reduce standby mode, some of which are shown in Figure 2. These techniques can reduce standby power consumption at the chip, device, or system level.

Some of the chip-level techniques focus on reducing the quiescent power consumption of an integrated circuit (IC). Reducing device leakage can be achieved through IC process improvements or through the use of sleep mode transistors [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. As discussed in Section 3, many of the device-level solutions repurpose the sleep transistor as a separate solid-state switch.

“Standby killers” are a family of device-level solutions that use a solid-state switch or mechanical relay to disconnect the device from power when it enters standby mode. Many of these solutions require an external wake-up signal to activate. Various zero-standby solutions in previous developments generate their wake-up signal optically with infrared [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28] or lasers [29, 30], mechanically with switches [31] or piezoelectric devices [32, 33, 34], thermally with thermistors [35] or Peltier devices [36], or by passive RF (radio frequency) transmission [37, 38, 39, 40]. Near-zero standby solutions use an ultra-low-power receiver to handle the wake-up signal. These solutions include wake-up radios [41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49], occupancy sensors [50, 51, 52, 53], powerline communications [54, 55] or wake-up LAN [56, 57, 58].

Reducing Standby Power Consumption: Strategies For Lowering Energy Bills

DARPA’s recent N-Zero research program has shown that microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a promising alternative to silicon-based spare killers [59]. N-Zero has created a family of MEMS-based solutions that enable high sensitivity and sub-microwatt power in sensing applications with infrared (IR) [27, 28], acoustic [60], chemical [61] and RF [48, 49] sensing methods. waking up. Despite their intent for battery-powered sensors, these solutions may also have potential in plug-in applications. Nevertheless, MEMS can have lifetime problems due to oxidation or failure at the relatively high voltage of the plug.

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Other device-level solutions can reduce standby consumption without power interruption. Consumption can be reduced in the energy converter by improving its efficiency or operating in pulse mode [62, 63, 64, 65]. The device can also use additional energy harvesting and storage to cover standby mode. Finally, device tasks can be modulated and selectively disabled based on the mode of operation [66, 67, 68].

System-level techniques involve controlling the readiness status of multiple devices on a network. Occupancy sensing or predicting user patterns allows a centrally managed building to selectively turn off unused devices [69, 70, 71, 72, 73]. Another prime target for standby reduction is Internet-connected devices with automatic updates. Future routers may use a scheduling algorithm to allocate time and bandwidth for the update and disable the device when it is finished [74, 75, 76]. The ultimate solution is to distribute power through a DC server module that can act as a

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