Name Of Proteins In The Human Body – Proteins are the “workhorses” of the body and are involved in many body functions. As we’ve discussed, proteins come in a variety of sizes and shapes, and each is specifically designed for its specific function. This page describes some important functions of proteins. As you read them, remember that the synthesis of all these different proteins requires a sufficient amount of amino acids. As you can imagine, eating a diet that lacks protein and essential amino acids can disrupt many body functions. (More on this later in the chapter.)

The main types and functions of proteins are summarized in the table below, and the following sections on this page provide more information about each.

Name Of Proteins In The Human Body

Name Of Proteins In The Human Body

Break down macronutrients into smaller monomers that can be absorbed; performs actions in metabolic pathways to utilize nutrients

Essential Nutrients Of The Human Body

More than a hundred different structural proteins have been found in the human body, but the most abundant is collagen, which makes up about 6 percent of the total body weight. Collagen makes up 30 percent of bone tissue and includes many tendons, ligaments, cartilage, skin, and muscles. Collagen is a strong fibrous protein composed mainly of the amino acids glycine and proline. In its quaternary structure, three protein strands twist around each other like a rope, and then these collagen ropes overlap each other.

This very neat construction is even stronger than steel fibers of the same size. Collagen makes bones strong but flexible. The collagen fibers in the dermis of the skin give it structure, while the accompanying elastin protein fibrils make it flexible. Grab the skin on your hand and let go; the collagen and elastin proteins in the skin allow it to return to its original shape. Smooth muscle cells, which secrete collagen and elastin proteins, surround blood vessels, giving them structure and the ability to stretch after blood is pumped through them. Another strong fibrous protein is keratin, an important component of skin, hair and nails.

Enzymes are proteins that carry out specific chemical reactions. An enzyme’s job is to provide space for a chemical reaction and reduce the amount of energy and time required for that chemical reaction to occur (this is called “catalysis”). On average, more than 100 chemical reactions occur in cells every second, and most of them require enzymes. There are over 1,000 enzyme systems in the liver alone. Enzymes are specific and will only use certain substrates that fit into their active site, much like a lock can only be opened with a certain key. Fortunately, the enzyme can perform its role as a catalyst over and over again, even though it is eventually destroyed and regenerated. All body functions, including the breakdown of nutrients in the stomach and small intestine, the conversion of nutrients into molecules that can be used by the cell, and the creation of all macromolecules, including protein itself, are involved in enzymes.

Figure 6.11 Enzymes are proteins. The job of an enzyme is to provide a place for substances to chemically react to form a product and to reduce the amount of energy and time required for this to happen.

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

VIDEO: Ferments Amoeba Sisters YouTube (28 Aug 2016) 5:46 min This video shows how enzymes work.

Are chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands. When an endocrine gland is stimulated, it releases a hormone. The hormone is then transported in the blood to the target cell, where it delivers a message to initiate a specific reaction or cellular process. For example, blood glucose levels increase after a meal. In response to increased blood glucose levels, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin. Insulin tells the body’s cells that glucose is available and to take it from the blood and store it or use it to produce energy or build macromolecules. The main function of hormones is to turn enzymes on and off, so some proteins can even regulate the actions of other proteins. Although not all hormones are made of protein, many are.

Adequate protein intake enables the body’s basic biological processes to maintain homeostasis (constant or stable conditions) in a changing environment. One aspect is fluid balance, which ensures proper distribution of water in different parts of the body. If too much water suddenly moves from the blood into the tissue, the consequences are swelling and possibly cell death. Water always flows from an area of ​​high concentration to an area of ​​low concentration. This causes water to move to areas with higher concentrations of other solutes, such as protein and glucose. In order for water to be evenly distributed between the blood and the cells, proteins are constantly circulating in high concentrations in the blood. The most abundant protein in the blood is a butterfly-shaped protein known as albumin. Due to the presence of albumin in the blood, the concentration of proteins in the blood is similar to the concentration in the cells. Therefore, fluid exchange between blood and cells is not extreme, but is reduced to preserve homeostasis.

Name Of Proteins In The Human Body

Figure 6.12 A butterfly-shaped protein, albumin has many functions in the body, including maintaining fluid and acid-base balance and transporting molecules.

Engineering Protein Based Therapeutics Through Structural And Chemical Design

Protein is also necessary for maintaining proper pH balance (a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance) in the blood. Blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45, which is slightly basic. Even a small change in blood pH can affect body functions. The body has several systems that keep the blood pH within normal limits to prevent this from happening. One of them is circulating albumin. Albumin is slightly acidic and because of its negative charge it balances the many positively charged molecules circulating in the blood such as hydrogen protons (H

), calcium, potassium and magnesium. Albumin acts as a buffer against sudden changes in the concentration of these molecules, thereby balancing blood pH and maintaining homeostasis. The protein hemoglobin also participates in acid-base balance by binding hydrogen protons.

Proteins also play a vital role in transporting substances around the body. For example, albumin chemically binds to hormones, fatty acids, some vitamins, essential minerals, and drugs and transports them throughout the circulatory system. Each red blood cell contains millions of hemoglobin molecules that bind oxygen in the lungs and carry it to all the tissues of the body. The cell’s plasma membrane is not normally permeable to large polar molecules, so the cell membrane contains many transport proteins to allow the necessary nutrients and molecules to enter the cell. Some of these proteins are channels that allow certain molecules to move in and out of cells. Others act as one-way taxis and require energy.

Figure 6.13 Molecules move in and out of cells through transport proteins, which are either channels or carriers.

Amino Acids And Protein Folding: Video & Anatomy

VIDEO: “The Sodium-Potassium Pump” by RicochetScience, YouTube (May 23, 2016), 2:26 min. This lesson describes how the sodium-potassium pump uses active transport to move sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and potassium ions (K+) into the cell.

Protein also plays an important role in the body’s immune system. The strong collagen fibers in the skin give it structure and support, but also serve as a barrier against harmful substances. The attack and destruction functions of the immune system depend on enzymes and antibodies, which are also proteins. For example, an enzyme called lysozyme is secreted in saliva and attacks bacterial walls, causing them to rupture. Certain proteins circulating in the blood can be directed to create a molecular knife that stabs the cell membranes of foreign invaders. Antibodies secreted by white blood cells search the entire circulatory system for harmful bacteria and viruses to surround and destroy. Antibodies also stimulate other factors in the immune system to seek out and destroy unwanted invaders.

VIDEO: “Specific Immunity, Antibodies,” Carpe Noctum, YouTube (December 11, 2007), 1 min. Watch this video to see how antibodies protect against foreign invaders.

Name Of Proteins In The Human Body

Some of the amino acids in protein can be broken down and used to produce energy. Only about 10 percent of dietary protein is catabolized each day for cellular energy. The liver can break down amino acids into a carbon skeleton, which can then be fed into the citric acid or Krebs cycle. This is similar to how glucose is used to make ATP. If a person’s diet doesn’t have enough carbohydrates and fat, their body will use more amino acids for energy, which can impair new protein synthesis and destroy muscle protein if calorie intake is low.

A) Proteins Were Classified Into The Different Lineage Specific…

Amino acids can not only be used directly to obtain energy, but also to synthesize glucose through gluconeogenesis. Alternatively, if a person eats a high-protein diet and eats more calories than their body needs, the extra amino acids will be broken down and turned into fat. Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins do not have a specialized storage system that can be used later for energy.

Proteins that help speed up or facilitate chemical reactions in the body; they combine two compounds

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