Enzymes In The Pancreas And Their Functions – This review aimed to analyze the scientific literature on pancreatic diseases (especially pancreatic exocrine dysfunction). This review also describes the relationship between pancreatic health and obesity. The influence of pancreatic exocrine function on the development of the body in adults and adolescents has also been described. The results of pig studies in the literature have been cited as an established model used to improve the treatment of pancreatic diseases in humans. Acne has an exocrine and hormonal function. As a result, it is one of the most important internal organs in animals and humans. Pancreatic diseases are often severe and complicated. Properly prepared food and food supplements taken greatly improve the health of the patient, as well as the course of the disease. Therefore, a healthy diet and lifestyle contribute to maintaining the proper functioning of the pancreas.

Acne is a glandular organ that affects the function of the entire body. Pancreatic insufficiency is the inability of the pancreas to biosynthesize and/or secrete digestive enzymes in sufficient quantities to digest and absorb food components in the intestine. Deficiency often occurs due to damage to the pancreas, which can be caused by various clinical conditions, for example, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, after pancreatectomy. It happens that such a failure is the result of pancreatic or colon cancer. In children, it is often associated with cystic fibrosis (about 90% of patients) or a rare genetic disease such as Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Pancreatic insufficiency is often manifested by malabsorption, malnutrition, avitaminosis, and weight loss (or failure to gain weight in children). Treatment is about treating the cause, preventing further damage to the pancreas, and relieving symptoms.

Enzymes In The Pancreas And Their Functions

Enzymes In The Pancreas And Their Functions

In this paper, the authors present the effect of a malfunctioning pancreas on higher mammals. Based on a review of the literature, the influence of pancreatic exocrine activity on adult and adolescent physical development has been described. Individual diseases that directly affect pancreatic health are listed and briefly described. The relationship between pancreatic diseases and factors such as diet, lifestyle and obesity was discussed.

Pancreatic Enzyme Formula

Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into the head, body and tail (Figure 1). Pancreatic parenchyma has a lobular shape and contains many secretory vesicles, which make up 80-85% of the weight of the organ. Pancreatic ducts are very important for pancreatic function. Each bubble has a wire coming out that connects to the others and then to the main tunnel. The main connection is the pancreatic duct, which starts at the tail of the pancreas, runs the entire length of the organ, and finally enters the duodenum through the large papilla (Vatera). In addition to it, there is also the pancreatic duct, which about 70% of people connect with the pancreatic duct, and finally, the substance secreted by the pancreas, which is transported through both ducts, goes in the so-called enlargement of the duodenal papilla. In the histological structure of the pancreas, two main parts are distinguished: pancreatic islets (or islets of Langerhans – their number may reach 2 million and they produce pancreatic hormones) and secretory cells, which form part one of the organs and they are responsible for the production of pancreatic juice and pancreatic enzymes.

Acne has two important and very important functions in the body: endocrine (production of hormones that control blood sugar levels and gland secretion) and exocrine (digestive gland function) (Yamada et al. , 2005). Endocrine function is carried out by the islets of Langerhans and includes the production of hormones such as insulin, proinsulin, amylin, C-peptide, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucagon. Insulin helps lower blood sugar, and glucagon causes blood sugar to rise. On the other hand, the exocrine function involves the production of enzymes that are part of the iso-osmotic, alkaline pancreatic juice and support digestion in the intestines. Intravesical cells produce enzymatic components of the juice, which are transported into the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts. In addition, mucus is produced in the pancreatic ducts by goblet cells. The composition of pancreatic juice includes enzymes that digest proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, as well as electrolytes and small amounts of mucus (Dąbrowski et al., 2007).

Enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase and elastase belong to the group of proteolytic enzymes (they break down proteins). Trypsin and chymotrypsin are produced in the form of proenzymes: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen. Pancreatic lipolytic enzymes are lipase, phospholipase and esterase, which digest fat. The glycolytic (carbohydrate digesting) enzymes are lactase and amylase, which break down starch into maltose, maltotriose and dextrins. Nucleolytic enzymes include ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease, which break down nucleic acids into mono- and oligonucleotides. Food intake and the neurohormonal mechanism regulate the secretion of digestive enzymes. The pancreas secretes 1-4 liters of pancreatic juice per day, and this amount depends on the food eaten.

The central nervous system and hormones control the exocrine function of the pancreas. Hormones such as secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are believed to be the main gut hormones that control the production of pancreatic enzymes (Morisset, 2020). Secretin is released from enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine, and CCK is released from the duodenum and jejunum in the presence of dietary lipids and proteins. Kapica et al. (2018) described the effect of obestatin (a hormone produced in specialized cells in the stomach and small intestine of many animals, including humans) on pancreatic exocrine secretion in rats. They found that this hormone can stimulate the production of pancreatic juice in two opposing ways.

Solved X Enzyme Name Enzyme Function Name Of Zymogen Form

For a long time, scientists have been trying to better understand the effect of the functions of the pancreas on the human body. A well-known example close to humans is that of pigs. CCK has also been shown to be a key regulator of pancreatic exocrine function in pigs, despite the lack of CCK receptors (Schweiger et al., 2000; Morisset et al., 2003). It has also been noted that the development of the pancreas in pigs seems to depend more on the change in diet during weaning than age (Pierzynowski et al., 1993). Milk consumption by pigs causes a rise in postprandial glucose, but not insulin (Pierzynowski et al., 1995). Therefore, it can be concluded that milk can control the exocrine function of the pancreas by producing the amount and type of enzymes needed for digestion. In the available literature, some reports show a positive correlation between the exocrine function of the pancreas and body weight in both weanling pigs (van den Borne et al., 2007) and young pigs (Botermans and Pierzynowski, 1999; Pierzynowski et al., 2007), 2005). Pierzynowski et al. performed experiments on pigs, where 7 out of 10 pigs that were tested, with increasing body weight, saw an increase in exocrine pancreatic secretion and a higher exocrine pancreatic secretion after a meal than secretion of preprandial (Flegal et al., 2010). Disturbances in digestion and absorption of food in pigs with EPI result in slow growth of the animal. However, as pigs get older, the effect of pancreatic exocrine activity on body growth decreases. Gregory and others. found that in pigs of ~30 kg body weight, EPI causes complete tension (Gregory et al., 1999), and Corring and Bourdon (1977) only observed a reduction of 25% in pigs combined with 40 kg. Pierzynowski et al. (1990) conducted studies on the development of pancreatic exocrine function in pigs. This experiment was to evaluate gastric secretion and extraction of total protein and trypsin before and after feeding during the 1st 13 weeks of animal life (Pierzynowski et al., 1990). The results of the studies showed that the basal pancreatic function and the secretory response to feeding remained low until 4-5 weeks. Only after weaning the pigs, pancreatic juice secretion and trypsin activity increased significantly. It was also noticed that the enzymatic structure of the pancreatic juice has changed well during this period. Furthermore, intravenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin did not influence exocrine activity during 1 week of 2 years, while a significant effect was observed from 3 to 4 weeks Thus, during individual development, they found an increase in pancreatic exocrine activity and a qualitative change in the process of hydrolytic enzymes. They also observed an increase in pancreatic response to hormonal stimulation during feeding.

Fedkiv et al. (2009) investigated the growth performance of pigs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) at different ages. They tested 7-week-old weanlings and twelve 16-week-old pigs. Six pigs from each group underwent surgery for pancreatic tissue fusion. They monitored the growth of the animals and reported the use of dietary supplements of porcine pancreatin (Creon).

10000). They observed that EPI caused growth restriction in weanling pigs but did not affect the growth of old pigs compared to inactive groups of pigs. Grown pigs under

Enzymes In The Pancreas And Their Functions

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