Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit – Simple tricks to remember common laboratory values! Covers CBC, chemistry (BMP/CMP), LFTs, ABG and coagulation studies. Charts included! Great for Nursing, NCLEX and USMLE!

If you enjoyed the memory tricks below, be sure to get your copy of the study guide so you can review it and succeed in medicine!

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

With so many different lab tests available, it can be challenging to learn and remember normal values.

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We’ve created a list of simple tricks to help you remember normal lab levels for common blood tests.

This is a great review for nursing, NCLEX and USMLE, as well as all students and professionals in the medical field.

You’ll learn tricks to remember normal lab values ​​for a complete blood count (CBC), chemistry or basic metabolic panel (BMP), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), liver function test (LFT), arterial blood gas (ABG), and coagulation testing.

Let’s review the main components of BMP, as well as tricks to remember their normal values.

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There are usually 3-5 bananas in a bunch and you want to buy them 1/2 off if you can.

Bunions are usually found on the toes or fingers, and we have 5 toes per limb, for a total of 20 toes.

0.9 is right in the middle of normal, and this will help you remember the normal range of 0.6-1.2 mg/dL.

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

The comprehensive metabolic panel primarily adds a panel/liver function test (LFT) to everything in the basic metabolic panel.

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Let’s review the main components of the liver function panel, as well as tricks to remember their normal values.

Another way to think about AST is to use the school start time of 9am, then the average school week is about 40 hours when you include homework.

Much like we used the “S” in AST to remember school, we’ll use the “L” in ALT to remember work (work).

The average working day is longer than the school day, and can start at 7 am and end at 6 pm.

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Another way to think about ALT is to use a 7am start time, and then the average work week might be 60 hours.

80 is right in the middle of normal and this will help you remember the normal range of 40-120 U/L.

Normal hemoglobin for women is around 12-16 g/dL and normal hemoglobin for men is around 14-18 g/dL.

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

When you think of hematocrit, you think of hematocrisis and the midlife crisis that usually occurs between the ages of 40-50.

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The main components of ABG that help determine acid-base status include pH, PaCO2, and HCO3 (bicarbonate).

We know that the pH scale ranges from 0-14 and we know that the body likes to be in homeostasis.

You can use “pH” to write the word “four” (4) with “pH” instead of “F”.

We’re going to multiply 12 by 2 because that would be 2, and that’s going to give us 24.

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Coagulation studies are used to assess the blood’s ability to clot and how long it takes for it to clot.

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Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

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Trt & Erythrocytosis

Previous Previous List of Common Medical Abbreviations and Acronyms Next Next Speech and Language Pediatric Milestones: NCLEX Chart Nursing Mnemonics Polycythemia (also known as polycythemia) is a laboratory finding in which the hematocrit (percentage of red blood cells by volume in the blood) and/or an increased concentration hemoglobin in the blood. Polycythemia is sometimes called erythrocytosis, and there is considerable overlap in the two findings, but the terms are not the same: polycythemia describes any increase in hematocrit and/or hemoglobin, while erythrocytosis describes a specific increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood.

Absolute polycythemia can result from genetic mutations in the bone marrow (“primary polycythemia”), physiological adaptations to the environment, medications, and/or other medical conditions.

Laboratory studies such as serum erythropoietin levels and genetic testing may be helpful in elucidating the cause of polycythemia if physical examination and medical history do not reveal a likely cause.

Mild polycythemia itself is often asymptomatic. Treatment for polycythemia varies and usually involves treating the underlying cause.

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Treatment for primary polycythemia (see polycythemia vera) may include phlebotomy, antiplatelet therapy to reduce the risk of blood clots, and additional cytoreductive therapy to reduce the number of red blood cells produced in the bone marrow.

Polycythemia is defined as serum hematocrit (Hct) or hemoglobin (HgB) above the normal ranges expected for age and sex, typically Hct > 49% in healthy adults m and >48% in women, or HgB >16.5 g/dL in m or > 16.0g/dL in women.

Various diseases or conditions can cause polycythemia in adults. These processes are discussed in more detail in their respective sections below.

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

Relative polycythemia is not a true increase in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, but an elevated laboratory finding caused by reduced blood plasma (hypovolemia, cf. dehydration). Relative polycythemia is often caused by loss of body fluids, such as burns, dehydration and stress.

Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell, Hematocrit, Platelet, White Blood Cell,…

A specific type of relative polycythemia is Gaisböck’s syndrome. In this syndrome, which primarily occurs in obese m, hypertension causes a decrease in plasma volume, which results (among other changes) in a relative increase in the number of red blood cells.

If relative polycythemia is considered unlikely because the patient has no other signs of hemocontraction and has persistent polycythemia without obvious loss of body fluids, the patient probably has absolute or true polycythemia.

Polycythemia in newborns is defined as hematocrit > 65%. Significant polycythemia may be associated with blood hyperviscosity or blood clotting. Causes of neonatal polycythemia include:

The pathophysiology of polycythemia varies depending on the cause. The body’s production of red blood cells (or erythropoiesis) is regulated by erythropoietin, which is a protein produced by the kidneys in response to poor oxygen delivery.

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As a result, more erythropoietin is produced to stimulate red blood cell production and increase oxygen-carrying capacity. This results in secondary polycythemia, which may be an appropriate response to hypoxic conditions such as chronic smoking, obstructive sleep apnea, and high altitude.

Furthermore, certain genetic conditions can impair the body’s accurate detection of serum oxygen levels, leading to overproduction of erythropoietin ev without hypoxia or impaired oxygen delivery to tissues.

Alternatively, certain types of cancer, most notably squamous cell carcinoma, and drugs such as testosterone use can cause inadequate production of erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell production despite adequate oxygen delivery.

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

Primary polycythemia, on the other hand, is caused by genetic mutations or defects in the red blood cell progenitor within the bone marrow, leading to excessive growth and hyperproliferation of red blood cells regardless of erythropoietin levels.

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An increased hematocrit and red blood cell mass with polycythemia increases blood viscosity, which leads to reduced blood flow and contributes to an increased risk of clotting (thrombosis).

The first step in the evaluation of new polycythemia in any person is to perform a detailed history and physical examination.

Patients should be asked about smoking history, altitude, medication use, personal history of bleeding and clotting, symptoms of sleep apnea (snoring, apnea episodes), and any family history of hematologic conditions or polycythemia. A thorough cardiopulmonary examination including auscultation of the heart and lungs can help evaluate cardiac shunting or chronic lung disease. Abdominal examination can assess the presence of splomegaly, which can occur in true polycythemia. Examination of the fingers for erythromelalgia, throbbing, or cyanosis can help assess for chronic hypoxia.

Polycythemia is often initially identified by a complete blood count (CBC). KKS is often repeated to evaluate persistent polycythemia.

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Primary polycythemias are myeloproliferative diseases that affect red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. Polycythemia vera (PCV) (also known as polycythemia rubra vera (PRV)) occurs when an excess of red blood cells is produced as a result of a bone marrow abnormality.

An excess of white blood cells and platelets is also often produced. The hallmark of true polycythemia is an elevated hematocrit, with Hct > 55% in 83% of cases.

A somatic (non-inherited) mutation (V617F) in JAK2 ge, also present in other myeloproliferative disorders, is found in 95% of cases.

Low Red Blood Count Hemoglobin And Hematocrit

Symptoms include headaches and dizziness, and physical examination signs include abnormal enlargement of the spleen and/or liver. In some cases, affected individuals may have associated conditions including high blood pressure or blood clots. Transformation into acute leukemia is rare. Phlebotomy is the mainstay of treatment.

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Primary familial polycythemia, also known as primary familial and conital polycythemia (PFCP), exists as a major inherited condition, unlike the myeloproliferative changes associated with acquired PCV. In many families, PFCP is due to an autosomal dominant mutation in the EPOR erythropoietin receptor ge.

PFCP can cause an increase of up to 50% in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood; skier Eero Mäntyranta had PFCP, which is speculated to have given him an endurance advantage.

Secondary polycythemia is caused by a natural or artificial increase in the production of erythropoietin,

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