How Many Type Of Cancers Are There In The World – The types of thyroid cancer are classified based on how similar they look to normal thyroid cells under a microscope (differentiated vs. undifferentiated) and by the type of cell from which they develop. The four primary types of thyroid cancer are follicular, papillary, anaplastic and medullary.
Papillary thyroid cancer, or papillary carcinoma, is the most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for approximately 80 percent to 85 percent of cases. Papillary carcinomas are slow-growing, differentiated cancers that develop from follicular cells and in one or both lobes of the thyroid gland.
How Many Type Of Cancers Are There In The World
This type of cancer can spread (metastasize) to nearby lymph nodes in the neck, but with a comprehensive thyroid cancer treatment plan, a patient can have a good prognosis (prospects for survival).
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Follicular thyroid cancer, or follicular carcinoma, is the second most common type of thyroid cancer. It is found more frequently in countries with an insufficient dietary intake of iodine. Follicular carcinoma is also a differentiated form of thyroid cancer.
In most cases, treatment gives patients a good prognosis, although it is somewhat more aggressive than papillary cancer. Follicular carcinomas do not usually spread to nearby lymph nodes, but they are more likely to spread to other organs, such as the lungs or bones, than papillary cancers.
Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland, also known as Hürthle cell carcinoma andoxyphilic cell carcinoma, is a rare cancer of the thyroid gland. This subtype of follicular carcinoma accounts for less than 5 percent of all thyroid cancers.
Medullary thyroid cancer, or medullary thyroid carcinoma, develops from C cells in the thyroid gland and is more aggressive and less differentiated than papillary or follicular cancer. Approximately 4 percent to 10 percent of all thyroid cancers are of the medullary subtype.
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These cancers are more likely to spread to lymph nodes and other organs compared to the more differentiated thyroid cancers. They also often release high levels of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which can be detected in blood tests during the thyroid cancer diagnosis process.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer, or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, is the most undifferentiated type of thyroid cancer, meaning it looks the least like normal thyroid cells. It is a very aggressive form of cancer that quickly spreads to other parts of the neck and body. It is a rare cancer of the thyroid gland that occurs in approximately 2 percent to 3 percent of thyroid cancer cases.
When the care team evaluates thyroid cells to determine if cancer is present, they classify the cells based on how different they look from normal thyroid cells to determine which of the following classifications they fit.
Cells that are well differentiated make up the majority of thyroid cancer diagnoses, and these have the best prognosis among the differentiations.
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When cancer cells are poorly differentiated, they have more abnormalities compared to healthy thyroid cells. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers make up between 3 percent and 5 percent of all thyroid cancers, making this classification more rare.
When thyroid cancer cells do not look like normal thyroid cells, they may be classified as undifferentiated, which is considered more challenging to treat than differentiated and poorly differentiated thyroid cancers. These cancers are aggressive and rare, representing between 2 percent and 3 percent of all thyroid cancers.
Your multidisciplinary team will work with you to develop a personalized plan to treat your thyroid cancer in a way that fits your individual needs and goals.Home > AACR Cancer Progress Report > AACR Cancer Progress Report 2022: Contents > Cancer Prevention : Identification of risk factors
Decades of research have led to the identification of several factors that increase the chance of developing cancer (Figure 2). As a result of this work, we know that more than 40 percent of all cancers can be attributed to preventable causes, including tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, and obesity (78) Islami F, et al. Proportion and number of cancer cases and deaths attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in the United States. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:31-54. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] . In addition, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and decreasing exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and indoor tanning equipment may further reduce the burden of certain types of cancer. Identification of additional risk factors to improve cancer prevention efforts is an area of intensive research (79) Brennan P, et al. Identifying new causes of cancer to improve cancer prevention: New strategies are needed. J Natl Cancer Inst 2022;114:353-60. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] .
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Cancer risk factors such as tobacco use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption are also leading causes of other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, fatty liver disease, and diabetes (80) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Accessed: 16 July 2022. [cited 2020 July 15]. . Therefore, reducing or eliminating exposure to these factors through public education and implementation of policy initiatives has the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of many other diseases in addition to cancer.
In the United States, many of the largest reductions in cancer morbidity and mortality have been achieved through the implementation of effective public education and policy initiatives. For example, the 32 percent decrease in overall cancer mortality in the United States between 1991 and 2019 is largely attributed to reductions in smoking and advances in early detection of some cancers (1) Siegel RL, et al. Cancer statistics, 2022. CA Cancer J Clin 2022;72:7-33. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] (81) Islami F, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, part 1: National cancer statistics. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2021;113:1648-69. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] . Despite these advances, the prevalence of some of the major cancer risk factors remains high, particularly among segments of the US population that experience disparities in cancer health, such as racial and ethnic minorities and other medically underserved populations, as discussed in depth in AACR Cancer Disparities Progress Report 2022 (13) American Association for Cancer Research. AACR Cancer Disparities Progress Report 2022. Accessed: 2022 Jun 30. [cited 2020 Jul 15]. .
Disparities in the prevalence of preventable cancer risk factors stem from long-standing inequalities in several social determinants of health among socioeconomically and geographically disadvantaged populations. Lifestyle, behavior and exposure are strongly influenced by living environments. For example, a lack of quality housing (eg, homes without smoke-free policies) can expose residents to high levels of second-hand smoke, a known cause of lung cancer. In addition, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are often located in food deserts, where there is reduced availability of healthy food options and an abundance of unhealthy, calorie-dense, nutrient-poor fast food, as well as limited outdoor space for recreation and/or exercise. These living environments create barriers to behaviors that are important for lowering cancer risk. It is imperative that all sectors work together to identify more effective strategies to reduce these barriers to healthy behaviors, disseminate our current knowledge about cancer prevention, and implement evidence-based interventions to reduce the burden of cancer risk for all.
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of cancer. Smoking is associated with the development of 17 different types of cancer in addition to lung cancer (see Figure 3), because it exposes individuals to many harmful chemicals that cause cellular and molecular changes that lead to cancer development (82) Vaz M, et al. Chronic cigarette smoke-induced epigenomic changes precede sensitization of bronchial epithelial cells to single-step transformation by KRAS mutations. Cancer Cell 2017;32:360-76 e6. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] (83) American Lung Association. State of the Air 2022. Accessed: 13 July 2022.[cited 2020 July 15]. . According to a recent analysis, adults who currently smoke have three times the risk of dying from cancer compared to those who do not smoke (84) Thomson B, et al. Association of smoking initiation and cessation across the life course and cancer mortality: Prospective study of 410,000 US adults. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:1901-3. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] . Fortunately, smoking cessation at any age reduces the risk of cancer incidence and cancer-related death (84) Thomson B, et al. Association of smoking initiation and cessation across the life course and cancer mortality: Prospective study of 410,000 US adults. JAMA Oncol 2021;7:1901-3. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] . In addition, smoking cessation reduces the risk of many adverse health effects beyond cancer, including cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (85) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking cessation: A report from the surgeon general. Accessed: [cited 2020 Jul 15]. . One of the most effective ways a person can reduce the risk of developing cancer and other smoking-related conditions is to avoid or eliminate tobacco use.
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Thanks to the implementation of nationwide comprehensive tobacco control initiatives, cigarette smoking among US adults has been steadily declining (86) Sengupta R, et al. AACR Cancer Progress Report 2020: Turning science into life-saving care. Clin Cancer Res 2020;26:5055. [LINK NOT AVAILABLE] . In 2020, the most recent year for which such data is available, 12.5 percent of U.S. adults 18 and older smoked cigarettes, down significantly from 42.4 percent of adults in 1965, a year after the U.S. Surgeon General’s landmark report on smoking was published. (87) Cornelius ME, et
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