Effects Of Mining Coal On The Environment – A Comparison of Literacy Levels on Key Environmental Issues in G.C.E. (A/L) Students in different subjects in Kandy District, Sri Lanka

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Effects Of Mining Coal On The Environment

Effects Of Mining Coal On The Environment

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From Canadian Coal Mines, Toxic Pollution That Knows No Borders

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By Subhash Chandra Subhash Chandra Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, * , Isha Medha Isha Medha Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 2, 3 and Ashwani Kumar Tiwari Ashwani Kumar Tiwari Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 4, *

What Is Open Pit Mining? Definition And Environmental Impact

Department of Civil Engineering, GITAM School of Technology, Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management University, Visakhapatnam 530045, India

Submissions received: December 30, 2022 / Updated: February 13, 2023 / Accepted: February 15, 2023 / Published: February 22, 2023

Land degradation and the release of pollutants such as heavy metals into the environment due to mining are global concerns. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the environmental matrix can harm plants and animals and have negative effects on human health. The poor physico-chemical properties of the minerals obtained from mining make the restoration of such contaminated and damaged soils difficult. In recent years, there has been an exponential growth in the development and application of biochar and its composites for the remediation of environmental matrices contaminated with heavy metals such as soil and water. A literature review found that 95 papers have been published in the last five years investigating the use of biochar for the removal of heavy metals from the environment. However, no papers have been published focusing on the application of biochar and its composites for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated coal mining soils. The purpose of the present review is to critically examine the environmental impact of mining operations and the role of biochar and its compounds in the remediation of heavy metal mining soils. This review presented a detailed discussion and sufficient data on the environmental impact of India’s mining practices. In addition, we carefully studied how to produce biochar from various wastes and how to convert pure biochar to create usable biochar composites. The mechanism of action of biochar and the concentration of heavy metals in soil were discussed. The effectiveness of biochar in the remediation of contaminated mine lands has also been carefully evaluated through various case studies and data from previously published articles. Therefore, the main conclusion from the review is that the application of various biochar composites can effectively manage and remediate heavy metal mining soils.

Effects Of Mining Coal On The Environment

The release of pollutants, especially heavy metals, into the environment has become ubiquitous due to industrialization and urbanization. In recent decades, the rapid growth of the world’s population has created huge demands for supply chain systems and energy demand. To meet the growing demand, especially energy demand, which has already doubled, most developing countries rely on coal-based thermal power plants to meet their energy needs. [1]. Coal production is about 7.90 billion tons (BT) [2], with China being the first producer, followed by India and the United States. Recent energy data has estimated that coal produces around 40% of the world’s electricity. It has also been predicted that it will be the most demanded fuel in energy demand for the next three decades [2]. India is the seventh largest economy in the world and the second most populous country [3]. The ever-growing population and economy have increased the per capita energy demand in India. In India, coal is the primary source of energy to meet the ever-increasing energy demand. India has coal reserves of 306.60 BT [2]. During the financial year 2020–2021, India produced around 756.50 million tons of coal, which is projected to increase to 1 billion tons by 2022 [3]. In the last decade, coal production in India has increased by 32% to meet the growing demand [4].

Coal Environmental Impacts By Operation

The production of coal and other minerals can only be done through mining, such as coal mining, bauxite mining, and iron mining. Mining activities are often associated with environmental changes, deforestation, human and animal migration, soil loss, acid mine discharges, and the release of heavy metals into the environment [5]. India has coal reserves of 319.02 billion tonnes. It is estimated that India will produce around 778.19 million tons of coal in 2021–2022, which is 8.67% higher than last year’s production figure ([6]). The production of coal by mining involves the removal of the green cover and the removal of large amounts of rock material. The stone material is dumped at a defined location in an active mining area [7]. Mine spoils are also dangerous for the environment, because the spoils are full of heavy metals and contain more particles [8]. Coal decay is rich in pyrite, which often leads to acid leaching. Acidic drainage is responsible for the discharge of heavy metals from landfills to water sources due to lowering the pH of the soil solution [9]. The release of heavy metals through the process of disposal into the environment poses a threat to humans, plants and animals. Therefore, it is necessary to rehabilitate such contaminated sites with the most common methods of reforestation [10].

Various methods have been implemented and proposed to restore polluted and degraded natural resources such as landfills (OB), such as phytoremediation and the application of mulch, lime, biosolids, and ash for soil stabilization ([ 11, 12, 13]). ). However, there are limitations to the application of the techniques mentioned above. For example, the use of fly ash on land is associated with the possibility of heavy metal contamination [14]. Biosolids application to soil can cause soil contamination with organic pollutants (pesticides and herbicides) and can increase the bioavailability of some heavy metals [15]. The use of lime and compost is only suitable for acidic soils and may increase CO

Evaporation from the soil [16]. There are also other technologies for soil remediation and pollution removal, such as adsorption, biodegradation, and in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which can retain and degrade pollutants in the soil [17]. In this context, biochar has emerged as an attractive material that can be used to improve soil structure, remove heavy metals through adsorption and oxidation/reduction, and support plant growth [18, 19, 20]. Biochar is a porous carbon material obtained from the thermochemical transformation of biomass waste under anoxic conditions at a temperature of 400-700 °C for a duration of 1 to 3 hours [ 21, 22]. Biochar can be produced from a variety of materials, such as corn straw, straw, hardwood waste, food waste, and agricultural waste, by pyrolyzing them at a specified temperature. above [23, 24, 25, 26]. Recently, ball milling techniques have been developed to produce very fine or nano-sized biochar particles for their application in the removal of pollutants from the environmental matrix [23, 27, 28]. Biochar is known for its high porosity, functional groups, aromatic properties, presence of inorganic elements, and high specific surface, which makes it a suitable material to be used for the remediation of contaminated soils. [29, 30]. For example, Turan [31] reported the application of biochar from olive pulp with calcite to soil contaminated with Ni to reduce its mobility in the soil and in the biomass of crops based on the study of culture. In another study, Turan [32] reported the combination of biochar obtained from hazelnuts and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that significantly reduced the fraction of bioavailable and DTPA available in the soil in addition to improving soil enzymatic activity. In addition, the chemical properties of biochar can be modified by doping its surface with other inorganic elements, acid or alkali treatment, and the development of composites [ 33 , 34 ]. How to change biochar can

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