Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body – The kidneys are among the most vital organs of the human body. Kidney malfunction can lead to serious illness or even death. Each kidney has a very complex structure and function.

They have two important functions namely: to flush harmful and toxic waste products and to maintain a balance of water, fluids, minerals and chemicals ie, electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, etc.

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

The kidneys produce urine by removing toxic waste products and excess water from the body. The urine formed in each kidney flows through the ureter, into the bladder before finally being eliminated through the urethra.

The Structure And Function Of The Kidneys

The kidneys are located at the top and back of the abdomen, on either side of the spine (see diagram). They are protected from damage by the lower ribs.

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs. In adults, a kidney is about 10 cm long, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick. Each kidney weighs about 150-170 grams.

The urine formed in the kidneys flows to the bladder and then through the ureters. Each ureter is about 25 cm long and is a hollow tube-like structure made of special muscles.

The bladder is a hollow organ made of muscles, located in the lower and front part of the abdomen. It acts as a reservoir of urine.

Icon Of The Kidneys In The Human Body. Isolated Male Silhouette. Examination Of Internal Organs. Anatomical Poster. Medical Banner Flat Vector Illustration For Clinic Or Education. Copy Space. 11220264 Vector Art At

The bladder of adults holds about 400-500 ml of urine; when it is filled close to capacity, a person feels the urge to urinate.

The urine in the bladder is removed from the urethra during the urination process. In women, the urethra is relatively short, while it is much longer in men.

Each kidney performs the essential job of flushing out harmful and toxic by-products. At the same time, they also regulate and maintain the right balance and levels of water, acids and electrolytes. Home Games & Quizzes History & Society Science & Tech Biographies Animals & Nature Geography & Travel Arts and Culture Money Videos

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

While every effort has been made to follow the rules of citation style, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

The Human Body: Anatomy, Facts & Functions

James Scott Robson Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Edinburgh; Consultant Physician, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. Author of numerous articles on acid and electrolyte metabolism and renal disorders.

G.A.G. Mitchell Professor of Anatomy; Director, Anatomical Laboratories, Victoria University of Manchester, 1946–74. Author of The Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System and others.

The Editors of the Encyclopaedia The editors of the Encyclopaedia oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained working on that content or through study for an advanced degree. They write new content and review and edit content received from contributors.

Renal system, in humans, an organ system that includes the kidneys, where urine is produced, and the ureters, bladder and urethra for passage, storage and t -removal of urine.

Kidneys Stock Illustration. Illustration Of Gland, Capsule

In many respects the human excretory, or urinary, system resembles those of other mammalian species, but has its own unique structural and functional characteristics. The terms

Emphasize the elimination function of the system. The kidneys, however, both secrete and actively retain in the body certain substances that are as critical to survival as those that are eliminated.

The system contains two kidneys, which control the composition of blood electrolytes and eliminate dissolved waste products and excess amounts of other substances from the blood; the latter substances are removed in the urine, which passes from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin muscular tubes called the ureters. The bladder is a bag that holds urine until it is eliminated through the urethra.

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

The kidneys are bean-shaped, a pair of reddish-brown organs, concave on one long side and convex on the opposite. They are usually located high in the abdominal cavity and against its back wall, located on either side of the vertebral column between the levels of the 12th thoracic vertebra and the third lumbar vertebra, and outside the -peritoneum, the membrane that covers the abdomen.

Location And Relations Of The Kidney

The long axis of the kidney is aligned with that of the body, but the upper end of each kidney (pole) is tilted slightly inward towards the spine (vertebral column). Located in the middle of the medial concave border is a deep vertical fissure, the hilus, which leads to a cavity in the kidney known as the renal sinus (kidney). The hilus is the entry and exit point of the renal arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and the enlarged upper extension of the ureters. Making educated treatment decisions begins with determining the stage, or progression, of a particular disease. The stage of kidney cancer is one of the most important factors in evaluating treatment options.

After a diagnosis of kidney cancer, the patient’s care team gives a stage to the cancer. The stage is a measure of how far the cancer has spread in the body. There are four basic stages of kidney cancer, and they are given the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Stage 1 is the earliest stage and stage 4 is the most advanced. This process helps the patient and his or her care team decide on the best treatment options.

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cell cancer, starts inside the kidney, where the blood is filtered. Cancer that starts in the renal pelvis, where urine collects, is technically in the kidney, but it is a separate type of cancer called transitional cell cancer. There is another type of cancer found in the kidney that is not considered kidney cancer called Wilms tumor. These cancers have different stages than kidney cancer.

Many early kidney cancers are suspected after a urine sample tests positive for blood, or an imaging test of the abdomen—computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan ultrasound ( MRI) — reveals a problem. In some cases, kidney cancer can be diagnosed with imaging tests alone.

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If surgery is recommended to confirm a diagnosis, the kidney will be examined by a pathologist. If surgery is not recommended, a long needle can be placed in the kidney to retrieve the cells. This sample is called a needle biopsy. As an added part of staging, an X-ray bone scan of the chest may be recommended to see if the kidney cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

To assess the location, size and spread of the cancer, the care team will use the TNM staging system, developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). TNM refers to tumor, node and metastasis, which are important factors in determining the severity of cancer. The patient-specific combination of TNM and other markers helps the care team determine the stage of the cancer.

The cancer has not spread outside the kidney and is not larger than 7 cm. Under the TNM system, kidney cancer stage 1 is T1, N0, M0.

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

The cancer has not spread outside the kidney but is larger than 7 cm. Using the TNM system, stage 2 kidney cancer is T2, N0, M0.

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The cancer can be of any size, but has spread to nearby sites outside of the kidney. Using the TNM system, stage 3 kidney cancer is T3, N0, M0 or T1-T3, N1, M0.

Cancer has spread away from the kidney to distant sites or organs. The most common places kidney cancer spreads, or metastasizes, to include distant lymph nodes, the lungs, bones, liver and brain. TNM classification for stage 4 kidney cancer T4, any N, M0 or any T, any N, M1.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) describes the stages of kidney cancer in more detail using the AJCC’s TNM system. In this system, T stands for tumor, N for lymph nodes and M for metastasis.

Once the care team gathers details about the type and stage of the tumor, they can evaluate available treatment options and develop information to share with the patient about his or her prognosis. Typically, the care team considers the following factors as part of this process:

Kidneys Stock Video. Video Of Human, Diagram, Kidneys

Your multidisciplinary team will work with you to develop a personalized plan to treat your kidney cancer in a way that fits your individual needs and goals.

The best treatment for kidney cancer depends on the stage, along with the patient’s general health. The most common options include:

Stage 1 Kidney cancer treatment: At this stage, surgery to remove the part of the kidney with the tumor may be the most appropriate option. This surgery is called a partial nephrectomy.

Where Is Kidney Situated In Human Body

Stage 2 Kidney cancer treatment: At this stage, the entire kidney can be removed. This surgery is called a radical nephrectomy.

Anatomy Of The Kidney: Structure And Diagram

Stage 3 Kidney cancer treatment: Some cancers may involve a radical nephrectomy to remove the affected kidney, nearby lymph nodes and cancer cells, as well as the adrenal gland and fatty tissue.

Stage 4 Kidney cancer treatment: At this advanced stage, other treatment options separate from surgery—such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy—may be recommended.

Staging the cancer not only helps the care team determine a treatment plan—it also helps predict a potential prognosis. This is done by calculating the percentage of people with kidney cancer who live five years after diagnosis compared to people who do not have that type of cancer. It is important to remember that this is only a statistic based on all people with kidney cancer over several years in

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