What Organ System Is The Pancreas In – This review aimed to analyze the scientific literature on pancreatic diseases (especially exocrine pancreatic insufficiency). This review also describes the relationship between the physiological readiness of the pancreas and obesity. We also described the influence of pancreatic exocrine function on adult and adolescent body development. Results from porcine studies in the literature have been cited as a model to be used to optimize the treatment of pancreatic disease in humans. We have an exocrine and hormonal function of the pancreas. Hence, it is one of the main internal organs in animals and humans. Diseases of the pancreas are usually severe and especially severe in us. Properly designed diet and accepted dietary supplements significantly improve the patient’s well-being, as well as the course of the disease. Therefore, diet and a healthy lifestyle have a positive effect on maintaining optimal physiological efficiency of the pancreas.
In us, the pancreas is a decorative organ that affects the functioning of the entire body. Pancreatic insufficiency occurs when the pancreas is unable to biosynthesize and/or produce enough digestive enzymes to digest and digest food components in the intestine. Absence usually occurs as a result of damage to the pancreas, which can be caused by a variety of clinical conditions, such as recurrent acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and post-pancreatectomy. Such failure is the result of pancreatic or gastrointestinal cancer. In children, it is often associated with cystic fibrosis (about 90% of patients) or a rare genetic disorder such as Schwachman-Diamond syndrome. Pancreatic insufficiency usually presents with malabsorption, malnutrition, avitaminosis, and weight loss (or failure to gain weight in children). Treatment involves treating the underlying cause, preventing damage to the pancreas, and relieving symptoms.
What Organ System Is The Pancreas In
In this paper, the authors present the effects of a dysfunctional pancreas on the organism of higher mammals. Based on the analysis of the literature, the influence of the exocrine function of the pancreas on the development of the body in adults and adolescents was described. We have listed and briefly described specific diseases that directly affect the health of the pancreas. We looked at the relationship between pancreatic disease and factors such as diet, lifestyle and obesity.
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Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into the head, body, and tail (Figure 1). Our pancreatic parenchyma has a lobular structure and contains many secretory vesicles that make up 80–85% of the body mass. It is essential for the functioning of the pancreas. Each bridge has output wires that connect to the others and connect to the main channel. The main duct is the pancreas, which begins at the tail of the pancreas, runs the entire length of the organ, and finally enters the duodenum through the greater papilla (Vatera). In addition, there is also an accessory pancreas, which is connected to the pancreatic duct in about 70% of people, and finally, the substance secreted by the pancreas is carried through two ducts called the large duodenal papilla. Two main elements are distinguished in the histological structure of our pancreas: the pancreatic islets (or islets of Langerhans – their number can even reach 2 million and they produce pancreatic hormones) and the secretory cells that make up the rest of the body. pancreatic juice and pancreatic enzymes.
Our pancreas has two important and very important functions in the body: endocrine (production of hormones that regulate blood sugar levels and glandular secretions) and exocrine (digestion function) (Yamada et al., 2005). Endocrine activity is carried out by the islets of Langerhans and includes the production of hormones such as insulin, proinsulin, amylin, C-peptide, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucagon. Insulin helps lower blood sugar, and glucagon causes blood sugar to rise. On the other hand, exocrine activity consists of the production of enzymes that are part of the iso-osmotic, alkaline pancreatic juice and support digestion in the intestine. Viral cells produce the enzymatic components of the juice, which enters the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts. In addition, mucus is secreted through the cells in the ducts of the pancreas. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, as well as electrolytes and a small amount of mucus (Dąbrowski et al., 2007).
Enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase and elastase belong to the group of proteolytic enzymes (they digest proteins). Trypsin and chymotrypsin are released in the form of proenzymes: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen. Lipolytic enzymes of the pancreas are lipase, phospholipase, and esterase, which digest fats. The glycolytic (carbohydrate digesting) enzymes are lactase and amylase, which break down starch into maltose, maltotriose, and dextrins. Nucleolytic enzymes include ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease, which cleave nucleic acids into mono- and oligonucleotides. Food intake and neurohormonal mechanisms regulate digestive enzyme secretion. Our pancreas produces 1-2 liters of pancreatic juice per day, and this amount depends on the food consumed.
The central nervous system and hormones regulate the exocrine function of the pancreas. Hormones such as secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are considered to be the main intestinal hormones that regulate the secretion of pancreatic enzymes (Morrisset, 2020). Secretin is released from enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine, and CCK from the duodenum and jejunum in the presence of lipids and proteins from the diet. Capica et al. . They found that this hormone can stimulate pancreatic juice secretion through two opposing mechanisms.
Exocrine Glands: Function, Examples & Types
For a long time, scientists have been trying to better understand how the physiological functions of the pancreas affect the human body. The closest known model to humans is the pig model. CCK has also been shown to be a key regulator of pancreatic exocrine function in pigs, despite the absence of CCK receptors (Schweiger et al., 2000; Morissette et al., 2003). Pancreatic development in pigs appears to be more dependent on dietary changes from weaning than age (Pirzinowski et al., 1993). Consumption of dairy pork results in a postprandial rise in glucose but not in insulin (Pirzinowski et al., 1995). Therefore, it can be concluded that milk can regulate the exocrine function of the pancreas by producing the amount and type of enzymes needed for digestion. Some reports in the available literature show a positive correlation with pancreatic exocrine function in suckling pigs (van den Borne et al., 2007) and young pigs (Bottermans and Pirzinowski, 1999; Pirzinowski et al.). , 2005). Pirzinowski et al. conducted an experiment on pork, with increased body weight in 7 out of 10 pigs, they observed increased exocrine pancreatic secretion and postprandial exocrine pancreatic secretion (Flegal et al., 2010). Indigestion and EPI feeding in pigs leads to slow animal growth. However, as pigs age, the influence of pancreatic exocrine function on body growth decreases. Gregory et al. EPI causes complete stunning in pigs weighing 30 kg body weight (Gregory et al., 1999), and Corring and Burdon (1977) observed a 25% growth retardation in 40 kg tethered pigs. Pirzinowski et al. (1990) conducted studies on the development of pancreatic exocrine function in pigs. The experiment consisted of monitoring gastric secretion and total protein and trypsin before and after feeding during the first 13 weeks of animal life (Pirzinowski et al., 1990). The results of the study showed that the basal pancreatic function and the secretory response to feeding remained low until 4-5 weeks. Only after weaning piglets, pancreatic juice and trypsin secretion and activity increased significantly. A qualitative change in the enzymatic composition of the pancreatic juice was also observed during this period. Moreover, intravenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin did not stimulate exocrine function during the first 2 weeks, while a significant effect was observed from 3 to 4 weeks of age. Thus, during individual development, they found an increase in exocrine pancreatic function and a qualitative change in the pattern of hydrolytic enzymes. They also observed an increased response of the pancreas to hormonal stimulation during the feeding period.
Fedkiv et al. (2009) investigated the growth performance of pigs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) at different ages. They administered the experiment to twelve 7-week-old mammals and twelve 16-week-old pigs during the fattening period. Six pigs from each group were operated for pancreatic duct ligation. They observed the growth of the animals and recorded the consumption of food enriched with porcine pancreatin (Chron
10000). They observed that EPI inhibited growth in weanling pigs but did not affect growth in older pigs compared to the corresponding pig groups. They obey the older pigs
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