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- 1 What Is The Role Of Vitamin D In Calcium Absorption
- 2 Molecular Crosstalk Between Vitamin D And Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
- 3 Recent Advances Of Vitamin D In Immune, Reproduction, Performance For Pig: A Review
- 4 The Role Of Vitamin D In Anti Tumor Ii
- 5 Whole Exome Sequencing Analyses Support A Role Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Ischemic Stroke
What Is The Role Of Vitamin D In Calcium Absorption
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Pdf] Role Of Vitamin D In Insulin Resistance
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Molecular Crosstalk Between Vitamin D And Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
By Victoria Contreras-Bolívar Victoria Contreras-Bolívar Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2 , Beatriz García-Fontana Beatriz García-Fontana Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, 3, * , Criston García-Fontana Criston García-Fontana Preprints .org Google Scholar 1, 2, 3, * and Manuel Muñoz-Torres Manuel Muñoz-Torres Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, 3, 4
Received: 30 July 2021 / Revised: 25 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
Recent evidence has revealed anti-inflammatory properties as well as extra-skeletal activity of vitamin D. In this context, vitamin D appears to be involved in the development of infections, autoimmune diseases, cardiometabolic diseases and cancer. In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance has become a topic of increasing interest. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels appear to be associated with most of the insulin resistance disorders described to date. In fact, vitamin D deficiency may be a factor that accelerates the development of insulin resistance. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in the population and may be associated with the pathogenesis of diseases associated with insulin resistance such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). An important question is to identify 25(OH)D levels that are able to reduce the risk of developing insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and disorders associated with insulin resistance. The benefits of 25(OH)D supplementation/replenishment on bone health are well known, and although the biological plausibility linking vitamin D and the state of insulin resistance is supported by basic and clinical research findings, as well as well-designed randomized clinical trials. Because basic research is needed to understand the molecular pathways involved in this association.
Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D or calcidiol (25(OH)D); calcitriol (1, 25(OH)2D); vitamin D receptor (VDR); 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1); insulin resistance; Homeostasis Model Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes; obesity; metabolic syndrome (MS); Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Recent Advances Of Vitamin D In Immune, Reproduction, Performance For Pig: A Review
Currently, vitamin D deficiency affects more than half of the population of all ages . The role of vitamin D in bone health is well known. In addition, vitamin D may also play a role in extra-skeletal functions. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble prohormone steroid with endocrine, autocrine and paracrine functions . Vitamin D acts as a chemical messenger [3, 4] and is involved in the regulation of transcription in approximately 3% of the human genome . Most tissues and organs contain receptors for vitamin D and appear to be involved in many biological functions. In fact, some studies have shown that low 25(OH)D levels are associated with other pathological conditions such as autoimmune diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) [4, 6] and cancer . Insulin resistance has also been linked to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, insulin resistance is linked to several disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications, MS and PCOS. In this regard, all these diseases can potentially be linked to vitamin D deficiency.
Obesity is generally described as a condition of excessive fat accumulation, with abdominal fat being a major risk factor for insulin resistance . Obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide as a major cause of the development of diseases such as T2D and CVD . The state of insulin-resistant obesity is usually associated with low circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D . However, the possible mechanisms underlying this hypovitaminosis D remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, the role of vitamin D supplementation in obesity is also being studied.
The incidence of T2D is increasingly common and alarming worldwide, in part, due to high obesity rates [ 11 ]. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the majority of diabetes cases (90%) are T2D, with 15 million people affected worldwide. Furthermore, this number may double by 2025 . Defects in systemic inflammation, pancreatic β-cell function, and insulin signaling pathways have been implicated in insulin resistance and T2D development [ 11 ]. A decrease in the levels of some metabolic parameters associated with vitamin D supplementation has been reported by several clinical studies [13, 14]. However, the 25(OH)D level required to improve glycemic homeostasis and reduce the risk of developing T2D has not been fully established.
MS is characterized by a combination of certain risk factors such as central (intraabdominal) obesity, hypertension, elevated triglyceride (TG) serum levels, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance . Dysfunction and distribution of adipose tissue has also been considered an important factor, and abdominal location of excess adipose tissue is most closely associated with insulin resistance [ 16 ]. The prevalence of MS has increased in recent years, which, in addition to the aging of the population, is attributed to the increase in obesity rates associated with lifestyle changes, such as less physical activity and poor healthy eating habits [17, 18]. It has been proposed that low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with a higher risk of MS and various factors that define MS. However, these relationships are not fully established. As the results of different studies on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in MS are inconsistent, there is also insufficient scientific evidence.
The Role Of Vitamin D In Anti Tumor Ii
PCOS affects 25% of women throughout their reproductive years, making it the most common endocrine disorder . PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder, associated with metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The Rotterdam workshop consensus  established diagnostic criteria for PCOS based on the combination of at least two of the following three clinical features: hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical), including acne, androgenic alopecia and hirsutism; Chronic oligo-anovulation; and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound . Although insulin resistance is not included in the Rotterdam criteria, it is a frequent symptom in PCOS. In fact, the key role of compensatory hyperinsulinemia in the initiation and progression of PCOS is supported by scientific evidence . Upper-body obesity (increased waist-hip circumference) in approximately 30–40% of normal-weight PCOS patients and up to 80% of PCOS women is hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance [ 23 , 24 ]. There are publications suggesting a molecular implication of 25(OH)D deficiency in clinical and metabolic phenomena frequently seen in PCOS, namely, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and reduced fertility. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with 25(OH)D levels and the development of PCOS, as well as vitamin D supplementation and PCOS improvement, are currently unknown.
The main circulating form of vitamin D used to determine vitamin D status is calcidiol or 25(OH)D . The definition of adequate 25(OH)D concentration remains controversial, so there is no clear cutoff point to define optimal vitamin D levels. Several studies have suggested that 25(OH)D levels above 30 ng/mL will ensure adequate bone health [ 26 ]. However, there is no evidence as to what level of 25(OH)D would be optimal to achieve benefits with respect to glucose and energy metabolism and other health targets [ 27 , 28 ].
Based on these premises, this review aims to summarize the recent evidence linking vitamin D and insulin resistance and related disorders: obesity, T2D, MS and PCOS. We also analyzed various interventional studies with vitamin D supplementation to evaluate the effect on these disorders.
A comprehensive search of the published literature in PubMed through June 2021 was conducted to identify articles on 25(OH)D levels, vitamin D supplementation, and insulin resistance. Search strategies were based on search terms: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D intake, vitamin D supplementation, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, impaired glucose tolerance, T2D, obesity, MS and PCOS. A selection of articles published in English that provide original human research, observational prospective and
Whole Exome Sequencing Analyses Support A Role Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Ischemic Stroke
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