What Is The Role Of Rna In Protein Synthesis – For the first time, a study led by Julian Chen and his team at Arizona State University’s School of Molecular Sciences and the Biodesign Institute’s Center for the Mechanism of Evolution, has revealed a way that has never been done before. in telomerase RNA from messenger RNA protein (mRNA).
The basic principle of molecular biology is that it describes the sequence of transfer of genetic information from DNA to protein production. Messenger RNA molecules carry genetic information from the DNA in the cell’s nucleus to the cytoplasm where proteins are located. Messenger RNA is the catalyst for protein synthesis.
- 1 What Is The Role Of Rna In Protein Synthesis
- 2 Dna Vs. Rna
- 3 Rna Protein Interaction Analysis, Services
- 3.1 Mrna Technology: How A Platform Is Revolutionizing The Biopharmaceutical Industry
What Is The Role Of Rna In Protein Synthesis
“In fact, many RNAs (ribonucleic acids) are not used to make proteins,” Chen said. “About 70 percent of the human genome is used to make non-coding RNAs that do not code for protein sequences but have other uses.”
Dna Vs. Rna
Telomerase RNA is one of the non-coding RNAs that assembles with the telomerase proteins to form the telomerase enzyme. Telomerase is critical for cell death in cancer and stem cells. In this study, Chen’s team demonstrated that a fungal telomerase RNA is produced from protein-coding mRNA, rather than synthesized individually.
“Our discovery from this paper is paradigm-shifting. Most RNA molecules are synthesized independently, and here we discovered a dual-functional mRNA that can be used to produce protein, to make a noncoding telomerase RNA, which is very unique,” said Chen. “More research is needed to understand the mechanism of the different RNA biogenesis pathway.”
Basic research on the transcription and regulation of mRNA has led to important medical applications. For example, many COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA as a means of producing viral spike proteins. In these vaccines, mRNA molecules are degraded and then absorbed into our bodies.
This new approach is more efficient than DNA vaccines which can potentially get into our DNA. The discovery of bifunctional mRNA biogenesis in this process may lead to innovative approaches for future mRNA vaccine development.
Dna And Proteins
In this study Chen’s group discovered telomerase RNA that was spontaneously produced from mRNA in the model fungus Ustilago maydis, or wheat smut. Corn smut, also known as Mexican truffle, can be eaten and adds a delicious umami flavor to many dishes, for example tamales and tacos. The study of RNA and telomere biogenesis in wheat smut will contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms for mRNA metabolism and telomerase biogenesis.
The Nobel Prize in iology or Medicine was awarded in 2009 “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the telomerase enzyme.” Telomerase was first isolated from a single organism living in pond sludge. Subsequently, telomerase is present in almost all eukaryotic organisms, including humans, and plays a major role in aging and cancer. Scientists are struggling to find ways to use telomerase to prevent human cells from dying.
Human cells are immortal and cannot be renewed forever. As Leonard Hayflick showed half a century ago, the life span of human cells is limited to replication, and old cells reach this limit faster than younger cells. This “Hayflick limit” of cellular lifespan is directly related to the number of unique DNA repeats found at the ends of gene-carrying chromosomes. These DNA repeats are part of protective structures, called “telomeres,” that protect the ends of chromosomes from unwanted DNA mutations that disrupt the genome.
Each time a cell divides, the telomeric DNA shrinks and eventually becomes unattached to the ends of the chromosome. This continuous shortening of telomere length acts as a “molecular clock” that counts down to the end of cell growth.
Rna Protein Interaction Analysis, Services
Impaired cell growth is strongly associated with the aging process, and the decline in cell population directly contributes to weakness, disease, and weakness. organ.
Preventing the telomere shortening process is telomerase, the enzyme that independently holds the key to delaying or reversing the aging process. Telomerase reverses cellular aging by lengthening telomeres, and re-pairing lost DNA to add time to the molecular clock countdown, extending cell lifespan.
Telomerase lengthens telomeres by synthesizing shorter DNA strands of six nucleotides—the building blocks of DNA—and the sequence “GGTTAG” onto the ends of the chromosome from a sample containing in the RNA part of the enzyme itself.
Shrinking telomeres negatively affects the ability of human stem cells to replicate, the cells that repair damaged tissues and replenish our bodies’ aging organs. The activity of telomerase in adult stem cells only slows down the molecular clock and does not actually kill these cells. Thus, aging in older people may result from shortened telomere length resulting in increased recovery time and loss of organ tissue from population imbalances. Taming the full potential of telomerase
Rna Protein Synthesis Lab
Understanding the regulation and binding of the enzyme telomerase holds the promise of reversing telomere shortening and cellular aging with the potential to extend human lifespan and improve the quality of life of the elderly.
Human diseases such as dyskeratosis congenita, aplastic anemia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have been genetically linked to mutations that negatively affect telomerase activity and/or accelerate the loss of telomere length. Rapid telomere shortening is associated with organ failure and shortened patient survival due to a very small population of stem cells. Increasing telomerase activity seems to be the best way to treat these genetic diseases.
Although telomerase activity may be more effective in bringing youth to old cells and curing diseases such as aging, there are too many good things that can happen to people. Just as telomerase is used to prevent long-term telomere loss, cancer cells use telomerase to maintain their malignant and malignant growth. Increasing and controlling telomerase activity must be precise, walking a narrow line between cell regeneration and increased risk of cancer.
Different from human stem cells, somatic cells are the majority of cells in the human body without telomerase activity. Deficiency of telomerase in human somatic cells reduces the risk of developing cancer, because telomerase stimulates the growth of cancer cells. Therefore, drugs that increase telomerase activity in all cell types are not needed. Small molecule drugs can be investigated or designed to increase telomerase activity only in stem cells for disease treatment as well as immunotherapy without increasing the risk of cancer.
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Research on telomerase RNA biogenesis in maize will reveal new mechanisms of telomerase regulation and provide new directions for modifying or engineering human telomerase for innovative approaches to developing anti-inflammatory drugs. and cancer.
This study, “Biogenesis of telomerase RNA from a protein-coding mRNA precursor,” was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The ASU team includes first author postdoc Dhenugen Logeswaran and former research assistant professor Yang Li, doctoral student Khadiza Akhter, former postdoc Joshua Podlevsky (currently at Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico) and two graduate students Tamara Olson and Katherine Fosberg.
Chen also talked about the efforts of ASU graduate students, Tamara Olson and Katherine Fosberg, who have been working in her lab for a year. “They spent a lot of time in the lab and really contributed to our research.”
More information: Logeswaran, Dhenugen et al, Biogenesis of telomerase RNA from the protein-coding mRNA precursor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2204636119. doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2204636119
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Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid found in all living cells. Although RNA is similar to DNA in many ways, it contains a different base set, meaning it is single-stranded instead of double-stranded.
Rna Binding Proteins Have A Modular Structure Where Intrinsically…
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