What Is The Role Of Plants In The Carbon Cycle – The cyanobacterial ribosomal-associated protein LrtA from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an oligomeric protein in solution with chameleonic sequence characteristics
Individual versus combinatorial effects of silicon, phosphate and iron deficiency on the growth of lowland and upland rice varieties
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What Is The Role Of Plants In The Carbon Cycle
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Indoor Horticulture Roles Explained
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Essential Plant Nutrients And Their Role In Plant Health
By Fareeha Shireen Fareeha Shireen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Muhammad Azher Nawaz Muhammad Azher Nawaz Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, 2, Chen Chen Chen Chen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Qikai Zhang Qikai Zhang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Zuhua Zheng Zuhua Zheng Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Hamza Sohail Hamza Sohail Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Jingyu Sun Jingyu Sun Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Haishun Cao Haishun Cao Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Yuan Huang Yuan Huang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1 and Zhilong Bie Zhilong Bie Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, *
College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070, China
Original submission received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 24 June 2018
Boron (B) is an essential trace element required for the physiological function of higher plants. B deficiency is considered a nutritional disorder that negatively affects the metabolism and growth of plants. B is involved in the structural and functional integrity of the cell wall and membranes, ion fluxes (H
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) across the membranes, cell division and elongation, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, sugar transport, cytoskeletal proteins and plasmalemma bound enzymes, nucleic acid, indole acetic acid, polyamines, ascorbic acid and phenol metabolism and transport. This review critically examines the functions of B in plants, deficiency symptoms and the mechanism of B uptake and transport under B-limited conditions. B deficiency can be mitigated by the addition of inorganic fertilizers, but the harmful effect of frequent fertilizer application disturbs the soil’s fertility and creates environmental pollution. With this in mind, we have summarized the available information on alternative approaches, such as modification of root structure, grafting, use of biostimulators (mycorrhizal fungi (MF) and rhizobacteria), and nanotechnology, which can be effectively exploited for B acquisition, leading to resource conservation. In addition, we have discussed several new aspects, such as the combination of grafting or MF with nanotechnology, combined inoculation of arbuscular MF and rhizobacteria, melatonin application and the use of natural and synthetic chelators, which possibly play a role in B uptake and translocation. under B stress conditions.
B is one of the essential nutrients for optimal growth, development, yield and quality of crops . It performs many important functions in plants and is mainly involved in cell wall synthesis and structural integration. According to a report, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) plants, 95–98% of B is located in the cell walls of the leaves . B is cross-linked with pectin assembly, glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPC) and rhamnoglacturonan-II (RG-II) [ 3 , 4 ] which control the tensile strength and porosity of the cell wall [ 5 , 6 ]. Limited B supply reduces RG-II dimer formation in pumpkin, resulting in abnormal (round and thick) cell wall formation . B is involved in protein and enzymatic function of the cell membrane, leading to improved membrane integrity [1, 8]. Optimal B concentration increases the plasma membrane hyperpolarization, while B deficiency changes the membrane potential and reduces H
ATPase activity . Limited B availability reduces ATPase in plasmalemma-enriched vesicles of chickpea roots compared to control [ 10 ]. The direct effect of B on plasma membrane-bound proton-pumping ATPase affects ion flux: the change of H
The increased B requirement of young growing tissue proves its critical role primarily in cell division and elongation . B starvation dramatically inhibits root elongation, with deformed flower and fruit formation due to reduced cell division in the meristematic region, while sufficient B supply promotes advantageous root development . B is involved in phenolic metabolism, and phenolic accumulation is a typical feature of B-deficient plants . B-sugar cis-diol complexation is important to reduce phenol accumulation. However, plants fail to form this complex due to the shift of the pathway from glycolysis to phosphate under B deficiency, resulting in the production and accumulation of phenolic compounds . B deficiency activates enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation using phenol as a substrate, resulting in elevated polyphenol oxidase and quinine concentrations, which are dangerous for plant growth and development . B deficiency can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species that drastically reduce ascorbic acid and glutathione metabolism . Although B-deficient leaves of citrus showed antioxidant enzymatic activity against ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, they were not strong enough to protect against oxidative damage .
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B plays a central role in nitrogen (N) metabolism as it increases nitrate levels and decreases nitrate reductase activity under limited B conditions . A previous study has also highlighted the role of B in rhizobial N fixation, actinomycete symbiosis and cyanophyceae heterocyst formation in legumes . Based on our knowledge, no study has investigated the direct involvement of B in photosynthesis. B deficiency affects photosynthesis indirectly by weakening vascular tissue responsible for ion transport . Goldbach and Wimmer  suggested that the disruption in chloroplast membranes, stomatal apparatus, the energy gradient across the membrane and thylakoid electron transport is a major cause of photosynthetic reduction under B deficiency conditions. During pollen tube growth and germination, B increases the chances of fruiting and improves seed production, leading to increased crop productivity. An adequate supply of B reduces the incidence of empty grains and increases yield by up to 5.5% in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) , increases spike length and plant pigment content, prevents the chances of sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum) L.) [ 22], and improves the quality and shelf life of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) . A previous study found that flowering and seed set in Arabidopsis thaliana are maintained by overexpressing the efflux B transporter BOR1, which not only increases yield but also improves mineral transport under B deficiency conditions [ 24 ].
B affects the availability and uptake of other plant nutrients from the soil. An apparent increase in uptake and translocation of P, N, K, Zn, Fe and Cu in leaves, buds and seeds was noticed after B application in cotton . An increased or limited B supply reduces nitrate levels by altering nitrate transporter activity and inhibiting PMA2 transcription levels in roots, leading to reduced plasma membrane H
Transporter genes (ACA, CAX) are upregulated under limited B conditions in A. thaliana roots, suggesting that B depletion results in overexpression of CNGC19 Ca
Influx channel in cells . The functions of B in different parts of plants are summarized in Figure 1.
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Apart from data obtained from agricultural reports proving the involvement of B in plant growth and development, B often results in deficiency or toxicity because it is a unique micronutrient where the threshold levels for deficiency and toxicity are very narrow . B deficiency and excess are both widespread agricultural problems for higher plants in arid and semi-arid conditions. B deficiency was primarily observed in apples grown in Australia in the 1930s and was subsequently reported in more than 132 field crops grown in sandy soils with low pH and organic matter from 80 different countries . Depending on the age and species, plants show a wide range of deficiency symptoms, including inhibited root growth, limited apical meristem growth, brittle leaves, reduced chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity, disturbance in ion transport, increased content of phenols and lignin and reduced yield. yield [1, 8, 20]. The occurrence of symptoms depends on the severity of the B deficiency condition because plants show uniform deficiency symptoms on whole leaves, but sometimes in the form of isolated spots. Given the immobile nature of B, it is
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