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What Is The Function Of Potassium In Plants
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Potassic Fertilizer For Plants
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By Min Wang Min Wang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar , Qingsong Zheng Qingsong Zheng Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar , Qirong Shen Qirong Shen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar and Shiwei Guo Shiwei Guo Scilit Preprints.org
Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in the Low-Middle Reach of the Yangtze River, Jiangsu Key Laboratory and Engineering Center for Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095, China
Role Of Npk For The Plants
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Agricultural production continues to be limited by a number of biotic and abiotic factors that can reduce the quantity and quality of crop yields. Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient that affects most biochemical and physiological processes affecting plant growth and metabolism. It also contributes to the survival of plants exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses. The following review focuses on the novel role of K in defense against a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, including disease, pests, drought, salinity, cold and frost, and waterlogging. K availability and its effects on plant growth, anatomy, morphology, and plant metabolism are discussed. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of K function in plant stress resistance are reviewed. This article also assesses the potential for improving plant stress resistance by modifying K fertilizer intake and highlights future research needs on the role of K in agriculture.
The world population is expanding rapidly and will go from the current number of 7.0 billion to 9.4 billion by 2050 . To provide enough food for a growing world population, a massive increase in crop production is needed to meet the food needs of future generations while conserving our planet’s environmental and energy resources. However, agricultural production continues to be limited by a variety of biotic (eg pathogens, insects and weeds) and abiotic (eg drought, salinity, cold, frost and waterlogging) factors that can significantly reduce crop quantity and quality. production. Evidence shows that biotic stress can cause 28.2% yield loss in wheat, 37.4% loss in rice, 31.2% loss in maize, 40.3% loss in potatoes, 26.3% loss in soybeans and 28.8% cotton loss . Meanwhile, yield losses from abiotic stress were estimated at 65.8% for maize, 82.1% for wheat, 69.3% for soybean, and 54.1% for potato [ 3 ].
During their evolution, plants have developed a wide variety of mechanisms to resist various stress conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that mineral nutrients play a key role in plant resistance to stress [4–8]. Of all the mineral nutrients, potassium (K) plays a particularly crucial role in plant growth and metabolism and greatly contributes to the survival of plants under various biotic and abiotic stresses. The importance of K-fertilizer for the formation of plant production and its quality is known. As a consequence, potash consumption has increased dramatically in most regions of the world . A strong positive relationship between K fertilizer intake and grain yield has been shown .
Pdf) The Critical Role Of Potassium In Plant Stress Response
K is an essential nutrient and is also the most abundant cation in plants. The concentration of K
In the cytoplasm has been consistently found to be between 100 and 200 mM , and apoplastic K
The concentration can vary between 10 and 200 or even reach up to 500 mM . K plays an essential role in enzyme activation, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, osmoregulation, stomatal movement, energy transfer, phloem transport, cation-anion balance, and stress resistance [ 4 ].
This review is focused on the effects of K on plant resistance to various biotic (pathogens and insects) and abiotic (drought, salinity, cold and frost and waterlogging) stresses. K availability for plant growth, anatomy and morphology, and plant metabolism are discussed. This review also discusses the roles of K in stress resistance mechanisms and assesses the potential for improving plant resistance by modifying fertilizer K intake and selecting appropriate plant species or cultivars.
What Is The Function Of Plant Stomata?
Increasing evidence has shown that crop production is significantly limited by biotic stresses. Oerke and Dehne  estimated that weeds caused the greatest potential loss (32%), followed by animal pests (18%), fungi and bacteria (15%), and viruses (3%) from 1996 to 1998. These figures reflect total achievable production for eight major crops (wheat, rice, maize, barley, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beet and cotton). In many cases, K-deficient plants tend to be more susceptible to infection than those with an adequate K supply. For example, the infestation rate of paddy rice was highest when there was no K supply, but decreased rapidly as K concentration increased  (Table 1). Similar results were found with Discula destructiva Redlin infection in Cornus florida L. . Williams and Smith  also reported that increased fertilizer K significantly reduced the incidence of stem rot and aggregate sheath (AgSS) disease, and negative correlations were found between leaf blade K percentage and disease severity. Fertilizer K has been widely reported to reduce insect infestation and disease incidence in many host plants. Perrenoud  reviewed 2449 references and found that the use of K significantly reduced the incidence of fungal diseases by 70%, bacteria by 69%, insects and mites by 63%, viruses by 41% and nematodes by 33%. Meanwhile, K increased the yield of plants infected with fungal diseases by 42%, bacteria by 57%, insects and mites by 36%, viruses by 78% and nematodes by 19%.
Application of K fertilizer reduced disease incidence in most cases, but sometimes had no effect or even the opposite effect. Prabhu et al. noted that the effect of K on disease incidence could be classified as “increased”, “decreased”, and with “no effect” or “variable effect” (Table 2). The variable effects of K on disease incidence may be affected by the amount and source of K, the plant and pathogen species, and the type of trial. Nam et al. found that strawberries grown with excess K were highly susceptible to infection by the anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, but their resistance was greatly enhanced when K was not supplied. This result was observed because low plant K status induces the synthesis of molecules, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid (JA), as a result of its increased plant stress tolerance [5 . 20].
Concentrations reduced the internal competition of pathogens for nutrient resources . This nutritional status allows plants to allocate more resources to develop stronger cell walls to prevent pathogen infection and insect attack and to obtain more nutrients to be used for plant defense and damage repair . DeDatta and Mikkelson  reported that tip and stalk strength of rice increased in the presence of adequate K concentrations as a result of increased plant resistance. During airborne pathogen infections (especially by bacteria and viruses), stomata could function properly when sufficient K was available, thus preventing pathogen invasion by rapid stomatal closure [ 23 , 24 ].
K is also essential for the performance of multiple plant enzyme functions and regulates the metabolite pattern of higher plants, ultimately altering metabolite concentrations [ 4 , 21 ]. In the K-sufficient plant, the synthesis of high molecular weight compounds (such as proteins, starch and cellulose) was significantly increased, thus reducing the concentrations of low molecular weight compounds such as soluble sugars, organic acids, amino acids and amides, in plant tissues. These low molecular weight compounds are important for the development of infections and insect infestation, so lower concentrations thus leave plants less vulnerable to disease and pest attacks in K-sufficient plants . Adequate K increases the concentrations of phenol, which plays a key role in plant resistance . Furthermore, Sarwar  concluded that less pest damage in higher K plants could be attributed to the lack of pest preference under sufficient nutrients
Macronutrients In Plants
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