What Is The Function Of Pancreas In Digestive System – The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system and docrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdomen, behind the stomach, and functions as a gland. The pancreas is a mixed or heterocrine gland, that is, it has exocrine and exocrine digestive functions.
As a docrine gland, it functions primarily to regulate blood sugar levels by secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. As part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. This juice contains bicarbonate, which neutralizes the acid that comes out of the stomach; and digestive enzymes, which break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in food that travel from the stomach to the duodum.
- 1 What Is The Function Of Pancreas In Digestive System
- 1.1 Pancreas Physiology. Secretory Function. Enzymes: Amylase, Lipase, Protease (digestive System) And Hormones: Pancreatic Polypeptide, Somatostatin, Insulin, Glucagon (endocrine System). Human Anatomy Royalty Free Svg, Cliparts, Vectors, And Stock
- 1.2 Pancreas Anatomy And Function
- 2 Gallbladder And Pancreatic Disease And Dysfunction An Overview
What Is The Function Of Pancreas In Digestive System
Inflammation of the pancreas is known as pancreatitis, with common causes including chronic alcohol use and gallstones. Due to its role in regulating blood sugar, the pancreas is also a key organ in diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic cancer can arise after chronic pancreatitis or for other reasons, and has a very poor prognosis, as it is often only identified after it has spread to other areas of the body.
Pancreas: Functions And Disorders
The word pancreas comes from the Greek πᾶν (pân, “whole”) and κρέας (kréas, “flesh”). The role of the pancreas in diabetes has been known since at least 1889, and its role in insulin production was identified in 1921.
The pancreas (shown here in pink) lies behind the stomach, with the body close to the curvature of the duodum and the tail extending to touch the spleen.
The pancreas is an organ in humans located in the abdomen, extending from behind the stomach to the upper left part of the abdomen, close to the spleen. In adults, it is about 12 to 15 cm (4.7 to 5.9 in) long, lobed, and salmon-colored in appearance.
Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into the head, neck, body and tail. The pancreas extends from the inner curvature of the duodum, where the head surrounds two blood vessels: the superior mesteric artery and vein. The longest part of the pancreas, the body, extends behind the stomach, and the tail of the pancreas lies adjacent to the spleen.
Pancreas Physiology. Secretory Function. Enzymes: Amylase, Lipase, Protease (digestive System) And Hormones: Pancreatic Polypeptide, Somatostatin, Insulin, Glucagon (endocrine System). Human Anatomy Royalty Free Svg, Cliparts, Vectors, And Stock
Two ducts, the main pancreatic duct and a smaller accessory pancreatic duct, pass through the body of the pancreas. The main pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct forming a small balloon called the ampulla of Vater (hepatopancreatic ampulla). This ampulla is surrounded by a muscle, the sphincter of Oddi. This ampulla opens into the descending part of the duodum. The passage from the common bile duct to the main pancreatic duct is controlled by the sphincter of Boyd. The accessory pancreatic duct turns into a duodum with separate openings located above the opening of the main pancreatic duct.
The head of the pancreas lies within the curvature of the duodum and surrounds the superior mesteric artery and vein. To the right is the descending part of the duodus, and between them pass the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodal arteries. Behind is the inferior va cava and common bile duct. In front are the peritoneal membrane and the transverse colon.
A small uncinate process emerges below the head, situated behind the superior mesteric vein and sometimes the artery.
The neck of the pancreas separates the head of the pancreas, located in the curvature of the duodum, from the body. The neck is about 2 cm (0.79 in) wide and lies in front of where the portal vein is formed. The neck lies mainly behind the pylorus of the stomach and is covered by peritoneum. The superior anterior pancreaticoduodal artery passes in front of the neck of the pancreas.
Pancreas Anatomy And Function
The body is the largest part of the pancreas and lies mainly behind the stomach, tapering along its length. The peritoneum is in the upper part of the body of the pancreas and the transverse colon is in front of the peritoneum.
Behind the pancreas are several blood vessels, including the aorta, splic vein, and left ral vein, as well as the beginning of the superior mesteric artery.
Below the body of the pancreas lies part of the small intestine, specifically the last part of the duodum and the jejunum to which it connects, as well as the suspensory ligament of the duodum that lies between the two. In front of the pancreas is the transverse colon.
It is usually between 1.3–3.5 cm (0.51–1.38 in) long and lies between the layers of the ligament between the spleen and left kidney. The spliced artery and vein, which also pass behind the body of the pancreas, pass behind the tail of the pancreas.
An Overview Of The Pancreas
The pancreas has a rich blood supply, with vessels originating as branches of the celiac artery and the superior mesteric artery.
The splic artery runs along the top of the pancreas and supplies the left body and tail of the pancreas through its pancreatic branches, the largest of which is called the greater pancreatic artery.
The superior and inferior pancreaticoduodal arteries run along the posterior and front surfaces of the head of the pancreas adjacent to the duodum. These supply the head of the pancreas. These vessels come together (anastamosis) in the middle.
Lymphatic vessels from the body and tail drain into the lymph nodes and eventually into the lymph nodes that lie in front of the aorta, between the celiac and superior mesteric arteries. The lymphatic vessels of the head and neck drain into intermediate lymphatic vessels surrounding the pancreaticoduodal, mesteric, and hepatic arteries, and from there to the lymph nodes that lie in front of the aorta.
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This image shows a pancreatic islet where the pancreatic tissue is stained and viewed under a microscope. Parts of the digestive (“exocrine”) pancreas can be seen around the islet, in a darker form. They contain cloudy dark purple granules of inactive digestive enzymes (zymogs).
A pancreatic islet that uses fluorescent antibodies to show the location of different cell types in the pancreatic islet. Antibodies against glucagon, secreted by alpha cells, show their peripheral position. Antibodies against insulin, secreted by beta cells, show the more widespread and central position that these cells tend to have.
The pancreas contains tissue with docrine and exocrine functions, and this division is also visible when the pancreas is observed under a microscope.
Most pancreatic tissue has a digestive function. Cells with this function form clusters (Latin: acini) around small ducts and are arranged in lobes that have thin fibrous walls. The cells of each acinus secrete inactive digestive enzymes called zymogs into the small interspersed ducts they surround. In each acinus, the cells have a pyramid shape and are located around the intercalated ducts, with the nuclei supported on the basement membrane, a large doplasmic reticulum and several zymog granules visible in the cytoplasm. The intercalated ducts drain into larger intralobular ducts within the lobule and ultimately into interlobular ducts. The ducts are lined with a single layer of column-shaped cells. There is more than one layer of cells as the diameter of the ducts increases.
Gallbladder And Pancreatic Disease And Dysfunction An Overview
Tissues with docrine function in the pancreas exist as clusters of cells called pancreatic islets (also called islets of Langerhans) that are distributed throughout the pancreas.
Pancreatic islets contain alpha cells, beta cells, and delta cells, each of which releases a different hormone. These cells have characteristic positions, with the alpha (glucagon-secreting) cells tending to be situated around the periphery of the islet, and the beta (insulin-secreting) cells more numerous and found throughout the islet.
The islets are composed of up to 3,000 secretory cells and contain several small arterioles to receive blood and volcanoes that allow the hormones secreted by the cells to reach the systemic circulation.
There are several anatomical variations related to the embryological development of the two pancreatic buds. The pancreas develops from these buds on each side of the duodum. The vtral bud rotates to be close to the dorsal bud, eventually fusing. In about 10% of adults, an accessory pancreatic duct may be present if the main duct of the dorsal bud of the pancreas does not regress; this duct opens into the minor duodal papilla.
Accessory Organs Of Digestion
If the two buds, each with one duct, do not fuse, there may be a pancreas with two separate ducts, a condition known as pancreas divisum. This condition has no physiological consequences.
If the vtral knob does not rotate completely, an annular pancreas may exist, where part or all of the duode is surrounded by the pancreas. This may be associated with duodal atresia.
Fewer than 100 of these genes are specifically expressed in the pancreas. Similar to the salivary glands, most pancreas-specific genes encode secreted proteins. The corresponding pancreas-specific proteins are expressed in the exocrine cellular compartment and have functions related to digestion or absorption of food, such as digestive chymotrypsinogenic enzymes and pancreatic lipase PNLIP, or are expressed in the various docrine pancreatic islet cells and have functions related to secretion. hormones such as insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide.
The pancreas originates from the anterior intestine, a precursor tube for part of the digestive tract, such as the dorsal and vtral buds. As it develops, the vtral bud turns the other way and the two buds fuse
Interesting Points On Pancreas, The Sugar Regulator
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