What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body – The prevalence and determinants of childhood hunger and its associations with early childhood nutritional status among urban poor households during the COVID-19 pandemic in Petaling District, Malaysia: an exploratory cross-sectional survey

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What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

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By Remi Fritzen Remi Fritzen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Amy Davies Amy Davies Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Miriam Veenhuizen Miriam Veenhuizen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Matthew Campbell Matthew Campbell Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, 3 , Samantha J. Pitt Samantha J. Pitt Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Ramzi A. Ajjan Ramzi A. Ajjan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3 and Alan J. Stewart Alan J. Stewart Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, *

Benefits Of Magnesium

Received: April 20, 2023 / Revised: May 12, 2023 / Accepted: May 13, 2023 / Published: May 17, 2023

) has many physiological functions in the body. These include important roles in maintaining cardiovascular functioning, where it contributes to the regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, endothelial function, and hemostasis. The hemostatic roles of Mg

In the cardiovascular system. Additionally, we describe how nutritional and/or disease-associated magnesium deficiency, observed in certain metabolic conditions, can potentially influence cardiac and vascular outcomes. Finally, we also examine the potential of magnesium supplements for use in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders and in the management of cardiometabolic health.

What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

Is an abundant cation present at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20 mmol/L [2]. In plasma, the magnesium concentration is a little lower, around 1 mmol/L. Many different reference values ​​for serum magnesium have been proposed (as reviewed in [3]), which collectively suggest that the concentration is between ~0.6 and ~1.2 mmol/L in healthy humans. . Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, conducted in 2012–2013, measured serum magnesium in subjects aged 3 to 79 years. They reported that 9.5 to 16.6% of adults and 15.8 to 21.8% of adolescents (12 to 19 years) had serum magnesium concentrations < 0.75 mmol/L [4], which is a level currently accepted as an indication of magnesium deficiency. However, it has recently been suggested that this guideline value is likely to be too low and should be increased to <0.85, as values ​​in this range are associated with increased health risks [3, 5].

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Has many physiological functions, such as maintaining the stability of DNA and RNA, as well as regulating cell proliferation, bone metabolism and neuromuscular functioning [6, 7], regulating the inflammation [8] and maintenance of hemostasis (Figure 1). Mg

Is a cofactor for many enzymes [9]. These include protein kinases that are commonly used to regulate gene transcription in response to extracellular stimuli (10). Mg

Is also required for the structure and function of DNA and RNA polymerases (11, 12). These polymerases are not only involved in nucleic acid synthesis, but some are also involved in DNA repair and genome maintenance. Virtually all enzymes involved in mismatch repair, nucleotide repair, and base excision repair use Mg

As a cofactor. Since defects in genome maintenance pathways are considered a hallmark of many cancers, magnesium deficiency could contribute to oncogenesis [1]. Furthermore, magnesium deficiency has been shown to be associated with various pathologies, including (pre)diabetes mellitus, platelet hyperreactivity, pre-eclampsia, acute myocardial infarction and even certain treatments [ 13 , 14 ].

Magnesium: Health Benefits, Sources, And Signs Of Deficiency

The scope of this narrative review extends to examining the importance of magnesium in cardiovascular and metabolic functioning and the influence of dietary intake and supplementation on these systems. Here we will examine how magnesium homeostasis is maintained and how an individual’s magnesium status is assessed. We will also examine dietary magnesium deficiencies in obesity and diabetes and review the roles magnesium plays in cardiovascular functioning and how pathologies caused by deficiencies can be alleviated through supplementation.

Magnesium homeostasis in the body depends largely on the collective actions of the intestine, skeleton and kidneys. The intestine is responsible for food absorption, with the skeleton storing approximately 50-60% of total magnesium.

In the form of hydroxyapatite, while the kidneys regulate its urinary excretion [1]. Magnesium can be found in all cells of the body [15, 16], and it is particularly prevalent in the mitochondria, nucleus, and endo/(sarco)plasmic reticulum. Mg binding

What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

By phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acids, chromatin and nucleotides would explain the presence of such a high Mg content

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Magnesium is naturally present in many foods; The main sources include those of plant origin such as grains, vegetables and legumes. Additionally, magnesium is often added to food products and is available in various forms as a dietary supplement [18]. It has been known for some time that dietary magnesium intake is lower in Western populations due to industrial food processing that reduces the content of magnesium and other nutrients [19]. Reports also suggest that organic foods contain higher levels of magnesium than their non-organic counterparts [20]. The United States Food and Nutrition Board recommends a daily mg intake

Intake of 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women [21]. When consumed as part of a meal, Mg

Absorption depends on the overall composition of the meal. Some nutrients have an inhibitory effect (e.g. partially fermentable fiber or non-fermentable fiber), while others can increase magnesium content.

Absorption in the intestine occurs via two distinct pathways. First, overall absorption from the small intestine is thought to be regulated in a paracellular manner, since absorption correlates linearly with luminal magnesium.

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Concentrations [23, 24]. Second, fine-tuning of the cecum and colon occurs transcellularly and involves TRPM channels -6 and 7 on the luminal membrane of enterocytes for cellular uptake [25] and the cyclin transporter/exchanger M4 on the basolateral membrane for Na.

Sixty percent of the body’s total magnesium is stored in bones where it plays a structural role [29]. Two-thirds of this amount is stored in hydroxyapatite crystals. This part is not easily available but is probably released following bone resorption [30]. Mg

Binds to the surface of crystalline hydroxyapatite and helps modulate crystal size and formation [31]. The quantity of magnesium present on the surface of the crystals is correlated with the plasma concentration of magnesium, as demonstrated by studies carried out in patients with renal failure [32]. This surface magnesium is an easily exchangeable magnesium reservoir

What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

A deficiency affects bone structure, causing large hydroxyapatite crystals. It affects cells involved in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Dietary magnesium intake has been associated with bone mineral density [33], and serum magnesium levels are strongly associated with increased risk of fractures [33] and osteoporosis [34].

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In case of magnesium deficiency. Approximately one-tenth of the total body magnesium is filtered by the kidney over a 24-hour period [35]. A total of 10-15% of the Mg filtered

(65%) is reabsorbed in the thick ascending loop of Henle [37], mediated by a paracellular mechanism dependent on the transepithelial potential generated by NaCl absorption. Thus, factors that impair NaCl reabsorption, such as diuretics and expansion of extracellular fluid volume, increase magnesium.

Excretion [38]. Approximately 10 to 15% of the filtered Mg is reabsorbed in the distal tubule [39]. Reabsorption occurs via an active transcellular mechanism and is regulated by divalent cation-sensitive receptors.

An individual’s magnesium status is often determined by measuring the total magnesium concentration in serum or plasma [40]. Plasma magnesium concentrations are closely linked to bone metabolism, as there is a continuous exchange between the skeleton and the blood [41]. Since plasma/serum magnesium represents only 1% of the total magnesium in the body [42], it is possible that an individual is in

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State of exhaustion but whose plasma/serum values ​​are within the “normal” range. Therefore, the clinical impact of magnesium deficiency could be underestimated. In plasma, the concentration of free Mg

Is reported to be ~0.6 mmol/L (~14 mg/L) [43], with ~30% complexed by proteins [44]. The major Mg

Magnesium deficiency/insufficiency can present a diagnostic challenge, as patients may have a “normal” serum magnesium concentration but have relatively low skeletal or cellular magnesium levels [33]. An indicator of intracellular magnesium status is the measurement of magnesium retention after

What Is The Function Of Magnesium In The Body

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