What Is The Function Of Bile Acids

What Is The Function Of Bile Acids – Definition of a new Plasmid-based gene transfer process of mammalian skeletal muscle by in vivo electroporation

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What Is The Function Of Bile Acids

What Is The Function Of Bile Acids

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Bile Acid Diarrhoea: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management

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By Susanne Naumann Susanne Naumann Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, 2, * , Dirk Haller Dirk Haller Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, 3 , Peter Eisner Peter Eisner Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, 2 , 4 and Ute Schweiggert-Weisz Ute Schweiggert-Weisz Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View publication 2

Pleiotropic Roles Of Bile Acids In Metabolism.

ZIEL Institute for Food & Health, TUM Weihenstephan School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany

Chair of the Department of Nutrition and Immunology, TUM Weihenstephan School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany

Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 5 September 2020

What Is The Function Of Bile Acids

Plant compounds have been described to interact with bile acids during digestion in the small intestine. This review will summarize the mechanisms of interaction between bile acids and plant compounds, the challenges in in vivo and in vitro analysis, and the possible health consequences. The main interaction mechanisms suggest that increased viscosity during digestion leads to reduced mobility of bile acids, or that bile acids and plant compounds are linked or complexed at the molecular level. Increased viscosity during digestion due to specific fibers is considered to be the main cause of bile acid retention. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions are proposed to contribute to bile acid retention in the small intestine. Although frequently hypothesized, the mechanism for long-term binding of bile acids by fiber or indigestible protein fractions has not yet been demonstrated. On the other hand, various polyphenolic structures have recently been implicated in reducing micelle solubility and regulating steroid and bile acid secretion but the underlying molecular interaction mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, future research activities should consider the complex composition and cell wall structure influenced by processing when studying bile acid interactions. Furthermore, it is necessary to address the influence of bile acid interactions on the gut microbiota to clarify their role in bile acid metabolism.

The Emerging Potential Of Bile Acids As A Modulator Of Psoriatic Inflammation

Bile acids are a family of molecules that contribute to many important systemic functions in the human body. Bile acids act as detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of lipids, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins. Recent research activities suggest that bile acids act as regulators of the gut microbiota and play a key role as signaling molecules by regulating cell proliferation, gene expression and lipid and glucose metabolism [1, 2]. Food ingredients of plant origin are considered to interact with bile acids during upper gastrointestinal digestion [3]. By increasing the rate of bile acid transport from the small intestine into the colon, these interactions may regulate the size and composition of the bile acid pool, influencing metabolic pathways associated with health status and diseases. Therefore, a better understanding of the interactions between bile acids and plant compounds is needed to recognize associated changes in bile acid profiles as a measure of physiological homeostasis [4]. Plausible modes of interaction include interactions at the molecular level as well as bile acid retention due to the viscous polymer network [5]. However, the underlying mechanisms, their levels and interactions are still not fully understood.

Investigating the interactions of plant compounds with bile acids poses a research challenge. Due to bile acid variability in the human colon and differences in bile acid composition in many animal models [6], the physiological results of in vivo studies provide limited conclusions regarding the mechanisms basic mechanism. Therefore, many in vitro studies have been performed in the past decades [3]. However, many in vitro studies lack the ability to compare and transfer results to physiological processes. For example, in vivo studies have consistently shown a marked impact of the viscosity and molecular weight of oat beta-glucan on bile acid excretion [7]. On the other hand, several in vitro studies have reported an inverse dependence of increased bile acid retention on decreased viscosity and molecular weight [8, 9]. In a recent comparison of common in vitro methods, it was found that differences between in vitro and in vivo results may be related to underestimation of viscous effects in some in vitro tests [ ten].

To elucidate the chain of events related to the health properties of foods of plant origin, a significant amount of research activity has addressed the interaction between bile acids and dietary fiber [3]. . Fiber can exist in isolated form or as part of a complex cell wall structure. Therefore, the fiber group includes a multitude of different structures [11]. Studies of human ileostomy have shown that diets enriched with oat fiber increase bile excretion within 24 hours of consumption [11, 12, 13]. Therefore, most studies agree that fiber mainly contributes to bile acid interactions in the digestion of plant compounds [3, 5, 11]. However, studies on fibers that retain intact cell wall structures do not provide convincing results regarding the nature and mechanism of interaction with bile acids [11]. In particular, large differences have been reported when comparing results on an equal fiber basis for different fruits [14]. Furthermore, a correlation between dietary fiber composition (ratio of soluble and insoluble fiber) and bile acid sequestering effects cannot be established for different dietary fiber preparations of different sources. derived from fruits, vegetables or grains [15]. These studies suggest that the interaction of bile acids with other plant compounds, such as proteins and phytochemicals, may augment the bile acid-retarding effects of fiber [16].

The objective of this review is to provide an update on the most recent findings regarding the interactions of bile acids with plant compounds. We will first provide an overview of proposed interaction mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract and outline methods for studying these interaction mechanisms. We will then explore how these interactions vary in relation to bile acid structure and plant tissue compounds (fibers, proteins, and phytochemicals). In this way, we aim to contribute to elucidating the role of bile acid interactions in the health-promoting effects of foods of plant origin.

The Principal Bile Acid Synthesis Pathways In Humans. Hepatocytes Are…

The main bile acids, cholic acid (CA) and chenodexoycholic acid (CDCA), are synthesized in the liver by cholesterol conversion, which involves 17 separate enzymes and is carried out through two different pathways [17]. The first step of synthesis, described as the rate-limiting step, is catalyzed by cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It is known that the gene encoding CYP7A1 expression is inhibited by several factors, including insulin, protein kinase C activator, cytokines, steroid hormones, and bile acids [6]. Feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis is carried out in the liver and intestine through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) which acts as a bile acid sensor [18].

The bile acid pool contains approximately 2.5–5 g of bile acids, which are conjugated with taurine or glycine to form water-soluble bile salts [19]. Bile salts vary in abundance in bile, with glycoconjugates accounting for approximately 70% and tauroconjugates, accounting for 30% of the human bile salt mixture [20]. Bile salts are stored in the gallbladder, which is stimulated to contract and secrete bile when food passes from the stomach into the duodenum [21]. Bile salts are steroid detergents that form mixed micelles with lipids, fats and/or cholesterol, thereby helping the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the intestines. Conjugated bile acids are reabsorbed primarily by apical Na-mediated active transport

Dependent bile salt transporter, transported back to the liver via the portal circulation, then secreted back into the bile. During each cycle of enterohepatic circulation (Figure 1), approximately 95% of bile acids are recovered. The 5% lost bile acids represent approximately 400 to 800 mg per day and become substrates for microbial transformation [22].

What Is The Function Of Bile Acids

Thanks to the action of anaerobic microflora, primary bile acids are converted into secondary and tertiary bile acids. The most common secondary bile acids, which result from deconjugation and dehydroxylation of primary bile acids, are

Dysregulated Bile Acid Signaling Contributes To The Neurological Impairment In Murine Models Of Acute And Chronic Liver Failure

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