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Hematuria refers to the presence of blood in the urine. It is defined by identifying three or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high-power field (HPF), in a urine sample. RBCs in urine can originate either from the kidneys or from elsewhere in the urinary tract, which consists of the ureters, bladder, prostate (in those assigned to males at birth) and urethra.
- 1 What Is The Cause Of Blood In Urine In Females
- 2 Everything You Should Know About Cloudy Urine
- 3 The Causes Of Blood In Your Urine
What Is The Cause Of Blood In Urine In Females
The term hematuria comes from the Greek words “hema-,” which refers to blood, and “-uria,” which refers to urine. Blood in the urine can be visible with the naked eye (ie, gross hematuria), or it can be detected microscopically (ie, microscopic hematuria). Asymptomatic or asymptomatic hematuria may be associated with many different medical conditions and should be investigated when discovered.
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Hematuria usually occurs as a result of diseases of the genitourinary system, however, systemic conditions can also present with blood in the urine.
Most often, blood in the urine indicates an infection in the bladder (cystitis) or kidney (pyelonephritis). Urinary tract trauma, ranging from kidney stones to accidents, such as an incorrectly inserted Foley catheter or a fall that bruises the kidneys, can cause hematuria. Hematuria is also often associated with nephrotic syndrome, which can result from glomerulonephritis, an inflammatory condition that damages the part of the kidney that filters blood (ie the glomeruli). In addition, polycystic kidney disease, a genetic disorder in which cysts develop on the kidneys, can lead to hematuria. Malignant tumors, such as renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer, can also cause hematuria.
Some systemic conditions may also lead to hematuria, including Alport syndrome, a condition that affects the small vessels in the kidneys. Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the lungs and kidneys. and lupus nephritis, which is characterized by inflammation of the kidneys caused by lupus. These conditions can lead to nephrotic syndrome, which characteristically manifests as hematuria. Individuals with bleeding diathesis, such as those who use blood thinners, or individuals with thrombocytopenia, may also experience blood in the urine. Individuals with sickle cell disease, a genetic condition in which red blood cells have an abnormal shape, often experience hematuria.
When the presence of blood in the urine is not related to the urinary system, it may be associated with a variety of conditions, including enlarged prostate (i.e., benign prostatic hyperplasia); Inflammation of endometriosis (ie endometrial tissue outside the uterus) of the ureter, urethra, kidneys, or bladder. Stimulant exercises; Menstruation; Or even recent sexual activity. Finally, some foods (such as beets) and medications (such as rifampin) can change the color of an individual’s urine, which can be confused with hematuria.
Blood In Urine? Know The Causes And Treatment
To diagnose hematuria, a health care provider usually begins by evaluating the individual’s symptoms, past medical history, and current medications. Individuals with gross hematuria may have pink, red, or brown urine. In most cases, people with gross hematuria are asymptomatic or may have mild symptoms, such as pain during urination or urinary urgency. Hematuria presents with blood clots in the urine that can sometimes be accompanied by bladder pain or back pain. A physical examination should always be performed to evaluate pain and pain in the lower abdomen, pelvic area, and flanks (i.e., costovertebral angle pain).
Additional tests are usually needed to determine the underlying cause of hematuria. Urinalysis is the initial and most useful test. The presence of three or more RBCs per HPF in urinalysis is a feature of microscopic hematuria. Alternatively, a urine dipstick can be performed, but it is not diagnostic and has many false positive or negative results. Urine appearance, pH, and presence of proteins, white blood cells, nitrites, crystals, and casts can also aid in the diagnosis. For example, a urine sample containing a large number of leukocytes and positive nitrite suggests a urinary tract infection (UTI) from gram-negative microorganisms as the likely cause of hematuria. Likewise, the identification of excessive proteins with hematuria favors the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis. Supplemental microscopic examination of urine may be performed to examine urine sediment for the appearance of RBCs, and RBC casts. Microscopic examination is the single most important test that can differentiate between glomerular and non-glomerular hemorrhage. Deformed RBCs and RBC casts, when identified, are diagnostic of glomerular pathology.
Initial ultrasonography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder may also be performed in individuals with hematuria to help diagnose anatomical causes of hematuria, such as a kidney stone or other mass. It can also be used to detect renal cysts. Computed tomography of the abdomen, with or without contrast, is the method of choice for detecting kidney stones and other morphological abnormalities in the kidney. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is another useful modality if CT is contraindicated or unhelpful.
Cystoscopy can also be used to detect cancer and infections. It can also be used therapeutically by removing remaining stones in the bladder. Finally, to diagnose the glomerular cause of hematuria, a kidney biopsy is usually needed.
Urinalysis: Tests, Results, And More
Treatment for hematuria depends on the underlying cause. In asymptomatic individuals with sporadic cases of hematuria, negative imaging, stable renal function, and absence of proteinuria, observation may be a sufficient therapeutic approach.
For cases with symptoms and those with clear underlying causes, specific treatments will be needed to resolve the underlying condition. These treatments can include antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapies, symptom management, and in some cases, surgical intervention.
Hematuria refers to the presence of blood in the urine, and can be classified as either microscopic or macroscopic. Hematuria usually occurs as a result of diseases of the genitourinary system, such as urinary tract infection, stones, trauma, and malignant tumors. However, systemic conditions, such as Alport and Goodpasture syndrome, can also present with blood in the urine. Diagnosis is based on medical history and clinical presentation, but further tests, such as urinalysis, urine microscopic examination, bladder and kidney ultrasound, computed tomography, and kidney biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment depends on the underlying cause.
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O’Leary, M. P., Glassock, R. J., & Lam, A. Q. (2020, December 9). Patient Education: Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) in Adults (Beyond the Basics). On UpToDate. Retrieved November 5, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/blood-in-the-urine-hematuria-in-adults-beyond-the-basics.
Saleem, M. Or, Al-Hamwi, K. (2021, August 11). Bloody urine. In StatPearls [Internet]. Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534213/
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2016, July). Hematuria (blood in the urine). At the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved November 1, 2021 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/hematuria-blood-urine Hematuria is the medical term used to describe the presence of red blood cells in the urine. These red blood cells can come from the kidneys (which make urine) or from anywhere in the urinary tract.
Seeing blood in the urine can be frightening, but most of the time hematuria is not a life-threatening problem. However, it is always important to know why blood appears in the urine, because it can sometimes indicate a serious condition.
Urinary Tract Infection Symptoms
It is when you can see blood with the naked eye. Your urine will appear pink, red, brown, or tea-colored. If you see blood in your urine, you should contact your health care provider.
On the other hand, it occurs when urine appears normal in color but contains an increased number of red blood cells. Urine sample tests detect the presence of these cells through a microscope (x).
Additional symptoms such as passing blood clots, difficulty urinating, or painful or frequent urination may accompany hematuria (x).
Although hematuria can be scary, the good news is that there are many natural treatments to help keep your urinary tract system healthy. Some treatments are specific to a particular condition and some are general.
Everything You Should Know About Cloudy Urine
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition in men over the age of 30. In patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, the prostate gland becomes enlarged, causing uncomfortable urinary symptoms, including blood in the urine.
Fortunately, natural treatments can help relieve these symptoms. For example, studies suggest that cernitone (a type of bee pollen), saw palmetto, and pumpkin seed oil may all reduce urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Better yet, it won’t cause many of the unwanted side effects that occur with medications (x, x, x).
If you have a chronic urinary tract infection, you may notice blood in your urine. Prevention can go a long way in saving you from discomfort. Staying hydrated is one of the best ways to reduce the incidence of UTIs because urine will constantly flush out bacteria. Vitamin C supplements may also help with prevention. (SS)
If prevention fails, cranberry juice or cranberry extract, along with bilberry leaves, can be helpful in treating mild UTIs. Its unique chemical compounds can help flush out pesky bacteria from the lining of the urinary tract, preventing infection (x, x).
The Causes Of Blood In Your Urine
Minerals can build up in the urinary tract and cause kidney stones, which are often very painful and can cause blood in the urine. However, several lifestyle habits can help reduce the incidence and severity of kidney stones.
Stay well hydrated
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