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- 1 What Is Function Of The Nervous System
- 2 Overview Of The Autonomic Nervous System
- 3 Autonomic Nervous System: What It Is, Function & Disorders
What Is Function Of The Nervous System
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School Environment Associates With Lung Function And Autonomic Nervous System Activity In Children: A Cross Sectional Study
Central nervous system, system of nervous tissue in vertebrates consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system controls both voluntary movements, such as those involved in walking and speaking, and involuntary movements, such as breathing and reflex actions. It is also the center of emotion and cognition. It is one of the two main parts that make up the human nervous system, the other being the peripheral nervous system (the nerves that carry impulses to and from the central nervous system).
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by protective membranes known as meninges, and both float in a crystal clear cerebrospinal fluid. The central nervous system is located largely in the axial skeleton, in which the brain is enclosed in a bony vault, the neurocranium, while the cylindrical and elongated spinal column is located in the vertebral canal, which is formed by successive vertebrae connected by dense ligaments. You have in mind the nervous system probably includes the brain, the nerve tissue in the cranium, and the spinal cord, the extension of the nerve tissue inside the spine. In addition, the nervous tissue that exits the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body (nerves) is also part of the nervous system. We can divide the nervous system anatomically into two major regions: the central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the nerves (Figure 12.1.1). The brain is contained in the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained in the spinal canal of the spine. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery – that is, above the brain and spinal cord.
Figure 12.1.1 – Central and Peripheral Nervous System: The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, the PNS includes nerves.
In addition to the above anatomical divisions, the nervous system can also be divided based on its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us (sensory functions, sensation) and generating responses to this information (motor functions, responses) and coordinating the two (integration).
Opening Assignment 1.what Are 2 Functions Of The Nervous System? 2.differentiate Between The Central Nervous System And The Peripheral Nervous System.
. Sensation refers to receiving information about the environment, either what is happening outside (ie: heat from the sun) or inside the body (ie: heat from muscle activity). These sensations are known as stimuli (singular = stimulus) and different sensory receptors are responsible for detecting different stimuli. Sensory information travels towards the CNS through the PNS nerves in the specific division known as the afferent (sensory) branch of the PNS. When information originates from sensory receptors in the skin, skeletal muscles or joints, it is transmitted to the CNS using somatic sensory neurons; when information arises from sensory receptors in the blood vessels or internal organs, it is transmitted to the CNS using visceral sensory neurons.
The nervous system produces a response in effector organs (such as muscles or glands) due to the sensory stimuli. The motor (efferent) branch of the PNS conducts signals from the CNS to the effector organs. If the effector organ is a skeletal muscle, the neuron carrying the information is called a somatic motor neuron; if the effector organ is heart or smooth muscle or glandular tissue, the neuron carrying the information is called an autonomic motor neuron. Voluntary responses are governed by somatic motor neurons and involuntary responses are governed by the autonomic motor neurons discussed in the next section.
. Stimuli perceived by sensory structures are communicated to the nervous system where information is processed. In the CNS, information from some stimuli is compared with, or integrated with, information from other stimuli or memories of previous stimuli. Then a motor neuron is activated to initiate a response from the effector organ. This process during which sensory information is processed and a motor response is generated is called integration (see Figure 12.1.2 below).
Figure 12.1.2 – Nervous system function: Integration occurs in the CNS, where sensory information from the periphery is processed and interpreted. The CNS then creates a motor plan that is executed by the efferent branch working with effector organs.
Overview Of The Autonomic Nervous System
The nervous system can be separated into divisions based on anatomy and physiology. The anatomical divisions are the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CNS is the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is different and includes afferent and efferent branches with further subdivisions for somatic, visceral and autonomic function. Functionally, the nervous system can be divided into those regions responsible for sensation, those responsible for integration, and those responsible for generating reactions.
1. What responses are generated by the nervous system when you run on a treadmill? Give an example of each type of tissue that is under nervous system control.
2. When eating food, which anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system are involved in the perceptual experience?
Functional division of the efferent branch of the PNS, which is responsible for the control of the heart and smooth muscles, as well as glandular tissue
Sympathetic Nervous System: Video, Anatomy & Definition
The large organ of the central nervous system contained in the cranium and continuous with the spinal cord
Anatomical division of the nervous system that extends from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body
Nervous system function that causes a target tissue (muscle or gland) to produce an event as a consequence of stimuli
Nervous system function that receives information from the environment and translates it into electrical signals of nervous tissue
Central Nervous System
Functional division of the nervous system that deals with conscious perception, voluntary movement, and skeletal muscle reflexes
Organ of the central nervous system found in the spinal cord and connected to the periphery by spinal nerves; mediates reflex behavior
This work, Anatomy & Physiology, is adapted from Anatomy & Physiology by Stax, licensed under CC BY. This edition, with revised content and artwork, is licensed under CC BY-SA unless otherwise noted.
Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2019 by Lindsay M. Biga, Staci Bronson, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Kristen Oja, Devon Quick, Jon Runyeon, OSU OERU, and Stax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are protected by bony structures, membranes and fluid. The brain is housed in the cranial cavity of the skull and it consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brainstem. The nerves involved are cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
Autonomic Nervous System: What It Is, Function & Disorders
The nervous system has three main functions: sensory input, integration of data and motor output. Sensory input is when the body collects information or data, via neurons, glia and synapses. The nervous system consists of excitable nerve cells (neurons) and synapses that form between the neurons and connect them to centers throughout the body or to other neurons. These neurons work on excitation or inhibition, and although the nerve cells can vary in size and location, their communication with each other determines their function. These nerves conduct impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. The data is then processed through the integration of data, which only happens in the brain. After the brain has processed the information, impulses are then conducted from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands, which is called a motor output. Glia cells are found in tissues and are not excitable but help with myelination, ionic regulation and extracellular fluid.
The nervous system consists of two main parts, or subdivisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the body’s “control center”. The CNS has different centers in it that carry out the sensory, the motor and the integration of the data. These centers can be divided into lower centers (including the spinal cord and brain stem) and higher centers that communicate with the brain via effectors.
The PNS is a large network of spinal and cranial nerves that are connected to the brain and spinal cord. It contains sensory receptors that help in processing changes in the internal and external environment. This information is sent to the CNS via afferent sensory nerves. The PNS is then divided into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic has involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles. The somatic has voluntary control of skin, bones, joints and skeletal muscle. Both systems work
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