What Is Boron Used For In Plants – 2 trace elements in agriculture worldwide: boron and zinc. More information about zinc deficiency can be found on this blog.

In this article we will focus on boron. Boron deficiency affects the quality of your crop as well as the overall yield. So if you want to avoid these things, find out why boron exposure can have such an effect.

What Is Boron Used For In Plants

What Is Boron Used For In Plants

Especially at the beginning of the season, boron is needed. At that point, all plants grow as annuals, like perennials. Plants are very active with the formation of new organs. If this process goes well, the plant can grow easily without any hindrance.

What Would The Industry Be Like Without… Boron (b)?

So why is it so important? Boron ensures orderly cell division. Ensures proper formation of new organs in apical meristems. So these organs like leaves, roots and flowers will work great later. Undoubtedly, this process is important for the further development of the plant and its fruits.

Boron deficiency is usually the result of improper availability in the soil and low mobility within the plant. For nutrients with low mobility, it is important that they are continuously absorbed throughout the growth cycle. Of course, this is not always the case with boron.

The solutions are not always clear. Unconjugated boron products are uniformly present in the soil and do not have higher mobility in the plant. Boron ethanolamines and other organoboron products vary in composition, and the practical outcome is uncertain. Only through chelation can we guarantee that boron is fully dissolved and readily absorbed by the plant under all conditions, so BMS MN has developed a specific boron chelate: B.

B can be used very flexibly. Although the product is partially applied to the soil, we always prefer foliar application early in the season. The product can also be applied through drip irrigation and in nutrient solutions.

Cure Boron Deficiency In Plants

The dose of B is low, varying between 1 and 4 L per year. For most crops, an application of 1-2 L/ha will be sufficient. Good timing is important to achieve the best results. B should work during the physiological stages of your harvest. We recommend that you consult the specific program on the Plant page.

If you would like to learn more about our boron chelates and their benefits, we invite you to download our site. Let’s discuss in more detail: This article is part of the research topic Micronutrients: The Border between Beneficial and Toxic Roles in Plants View all 17 articles.

Although boron (B) has long been accepted as a plant micronutrient, this assumption has recently been questioned. Accumulating evidence has shown that the players involved in B uptake and translocation by plant roots include a complex set of proteins used to cope with B levels in the soil solution. Here, we summarize compelling evidence supporting the critical role of B in mediating plant developmental programs. In general, most plant species studied to date have shown specific B transporters that are strongly genetically coordinated in response to soil B levels. These transporters can take up B from the soil, which is very rare for toxic elements. In addition, current tools available for determining B levels cannot accurately determine B translational dynamics. We suggest that B plays an important role in plant metabolism. The importance of root and shoot meristem development in regulation is related to plant growth phase transitions, which are important processes in the completion of the life cycle. We provide further evidence that plants must obtain adequate amounts of B in defense against plant toxicity. Thus, the development of in vitro and in vivo approaches is necessary to accurately quantify B levels and then to uniformly determine the function of B in terrestrial plants.

What Is Boron Used For In Plants

Boron (B) was first described in the 1920s with the demonstration that root growth in Wikia faba L. (field bean) and other plants was reduced in the absence of B, but this could be partially rescued after B was reintroduced (Warrington, 1923). It was later suggested that B may play an important role in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments, driving this evolutionary transition (Lewis, 1980). Similarly, studies on the first vascular plant Zosterophyllum shengfengense showed that B is primitive and originates in the root system in above-ground environments (Lewis, 1980).

The Fantastic Fourteen: Essential Nutrients In Plants

In plants, B plays important roles in cell wall structure, supporting plasma membrane functions, stimulating reproductive tissues and improving seed quality, and is effective in the biosynthesis of some metabolic compounds such as antioxidants and polyphenols. (Cakmak and Römheld, 1997; Marschner, 2012). In addition, this element is involved in nucleic acid synthesis, phenolic metabolism, carbohydrate biosynthesis and translocation, pollen tube development and root elongation, and it also reduces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase activity and therefore increases IAA content. (Brown et al., 2002; Shireen et al., 2018; Landi et al., 2019). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions are still unknown. However, compelling evidence has shown a complex system involved in the uptake and transport of B in various plants (Miwa and Fujiwara, 2010). Previously, the adoption process was passive and unregulated; however, it is evident that plants regulate and modulate the expression and/or accumulation of specific transporters in roots and shoots to maintain B homeostasis, thereby determining the external and internal conditions of B (Miwa and Fujiwara, 2010).

More recently, B has been shown to be a highly toxic element, causing significant damage to plant cells even at low levels (Reid et al., 2004; Landi et al., 2019). Furthermore, given that B deficiency responses are primarily caused by phenylpropanoid toxicity, the need for B is questionable. (Lewis, 2019). It is notable that tolerance to high soil B levels remains in the genomes of intermediate wheat elites after the selection of wild seeds bred by early Mediterranean farmers (Pallotta et al., 2014). The fact that these tolerance alleles are common in elite wheat cultivars grown in countries with very low B levels, and the genetic distribution of their association with B levels in soils from different geographic regions, suggests that they may play an alternative role under conflicting conditions. Collectively, this suggests that the combination of B tolerance alleles with soil B levels is important for mediating plant developmental programs. Accordingly, it can create molecular pathways that correspond to multiple actions between molecules in the cell that can turn genes on and off, thereby regulating developmental phase transitions (Figure 1). These transitions are involved in coordinating the transition of plants to the adult phase (Redondo-Nieto et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2014; Shu et al., 2016; Kobayashi et al., 2018; Sakamoto et al., 2018).

Figure 1. Transporter-mediated homeostasis of boron (B) levels in the plant cell. B homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana roots is mainly based on three transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane. The first is the simple diffusion of boric acid (H.

), free across lipid bilayers. A second mechanism, NIP5; 1 represents facilitated diffusion mediated by acaporin family channels. The third refers to B movement with specific transports (eg BOR 1, BOR2 and BOR4). NIP5; 1 channels are expressed in the plasma membranes of root cap and epidermal cells with outward/inward polarity (Takano et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2017). NIP5; 1 mediates the efficient radial transport of soil B from the epidermis and cortex through the endoderm. The Casparian group developed in the endoderm restricts the apoplastic flow of B to the stele. BOR1 and BOR2 are expressed in the meristematic and maturation zones in the endodermis (Miwa et al., 2013; Reid, 2014; Inoshinari et al., 2019). BOR1 and BOR2 are polar localized within the peripheral plasma membrane (Takano et al., 2010; Miwa et al., 2013). BOR4, located in the root epidermis, contributes to B efflux from the root to the soil solution ( Miwa et al., 2007 ). In shoots, NIP6; 1 is required for transport from xylem B located in the stele parenchyma to the phloem in nodal regions (Tanaka et al., 2016). Figures were generated using the software biorender (app.biorender.com).

Boron Application Increases Growth Of Brazilian Cerrado Grasses

Over the past century, several independent and complementary studies have provided convincing evidence for the relationship of B and its importance to plant growth and development. Notably, this aspect has recently been disputed based on metabolic responses that may be confounded with B deficiency responses. Here, we summarize the B complex interactions in soil, as well as how these interactions may affect the transporter system they operate.

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