What Does Low Hemoglobin And Hematocrit Indicate – Anemia is not a disease but a symptom of an underlying disease process. This is a condition when the patient does not have enough red blood cells (low hematocrit) or when the red blood cells do not function properly. Signs and symptoms include weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, fast or irregular heartbeat, headache, cold hands or feet, pale or yellow skin, restless leg syndrome, and/or chest pain.
Many people are at risk of anemia for many reasons, including genetics, poor diet, bowel disorders (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis), chronic disease (kidney failure, liver disease, thyroid disease), infections, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune diseases (AIDS). Menstruating or pregnant women, the elderly, and patients taking blood-thinning medications are at a higher risk of developing anemia. Some of the more common types of anemia include: (8)
- 1 What Does Low Hemoglobin And Hematocrit Indicate
- 2 Role Of Hematological Parameters In Pathogenesis Of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of The Literature
- 3 Solved Hematocrit Determination The Hematocrits For The
What Does Low Hemoglobin And Hematocrit Indicate
The most common type of anemia; occurs when there is a significant iron deficiency in the body.
Hemoglobin & Hematocrit • The Blood Project
Iron is essential for producing hemoglobin in red blood cells. Any reduction in iron levels in the body results in the inability of red cells to adequately oxygenate tissues.
It may be due to low levels of vitamin B12 or folate (folic acid), usually due to poor dietary intake. Both are necessary to process carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and help produce red blood cells.
It usually affects people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian descent and is marked by abnormal, short red blood cells. Also called Cooley’s Anemia, Thalassemia major is a severe form of anemia in which red blood cells are rapidly destroyed, and iron is deposited in the skin and vital organs. Regular transfusions are necessary.
It mainly affects African-Americans and people of Arab, Greek, Italian, Latin American, and Indian descent. Caucasians can also have sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait.
Symptoms Of Anemia You Shouldn’t Ignore
Sickle cell disease is caused by mutations in the gene that causes a defective hemoglobin protein, called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S changes red blood cells into rigid, sickle-shaped cells.
Sickle-shaped cells can stick to vessel walls, causing blockages that slow or stop blood flow. When this happens, oxygen cannot reach nearby tissues. A lack of oxygen in the tissues can cause a sudden attack of pain, called a sickle cell crisis. Sickle cell crisis can occur for no apparent reason or be triggered by conditions such as dehydration, infection, stress, trauma, exposure to extreme temperatures, lack of oxygen, or strenuous physical activity. The frequency of pain varies from person to person, and the recurrence of the crisis can be deadly. Blindness, leg ulcers, and other health problems appear, depending on where the blockage of blood flow occurs in the body. (10)
Because sickle cells cannot change shape easily, they can break. Normal red blood cells live about 90 to 120 days, but sickle cells last only 10 to 20 days. The body is constantly making new red blood cells to replace old ones. However, the body may have trouble keeping up with how quickly the cells are being destroyed in sickle cell disease. Because of this, the number of red blood cells is usually lower than normal, causing anemia. (9)
Prehospital management of sickle cell crisis should relieve pain as needed in diseases that cause severe acute pain. Treatment of a pain crisis includes the administration of analgesics, including narcotics and NSAIDs, rehydration, bed rest, and transport to the ED for antibiotics to treat the underlying infection. red blood cells and reduce sickling during the hypoxic state.
Role Of Hematological Parameters In Pathogenesis Of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of The Literature
Polycythemia is a blood flow condition that causes circulating levels of red blood cells, hematocrit, or hemoglobin to exceed normal limits. Polycythemia is divided into two categories:
With an increase in the level of circulating red blood cells, the thickness of the blood increases. This can be associated with a higher risk of thrombus formation leading to stroke, heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and possibly death. (19)
A decrease in white blood cells, which can be caused by damaged cells or not enough cells being made (12)
An increase in white blood cells, which can be a normal response of the immune system but can also be caused by certain cancerous or non-cancerous diseases (13)
Diagnosing And Classifying Anemia In Adult Primary Care
Signs and symptoms of white blood cell disorders can vary based on the underlying cause, and some patients may be asymptomatic. If symptoms develop, they are often non-specific. Fever, chills, fatigue, dizziness, sweating, dyspnea, tachycardia, body aches, cough, and loss of appetite are common.
The goal of prehospital management of patients with high or low white blood cell counts is to protect the patient from infection. It is important to use aseptic technique when performing invasive procedures. Many of these patients may complain of nausea, vomiting, and weakness after chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment. If the patient is dehydrated, treat with fluid therapy and transport to hospital. If the patient is stable, transport in a comfortable position to the hospital for evaluation of the main complaint. Consider analgesics for patients with significant pain. (10)
Causes include: chemotherapy, hepatitis C, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, drugs such as warfarin and heparin, alcohol abuse, and severe sepsis.
Causes include: Inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, iron deficiency anemia, removal of the spleen, cancer, infection, and trauma.
Solved Hematocrit Determination The Hematocrits For The
Prehospital management is particularly supportive. Any intervention is usually on a case-by-case basis and aims to eliminate the signs and symptoms the patient is currently experiencing.
Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can cause spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding after injury or surgery. Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help prevent bleeding. There are several types of hemophilia; However, Hemophilia A and B are the most common. Hemophilia A, also called “classic hemophilia” is a deficiency or lower than normal level of clotting factor eight. Hemophilia B, also called “Christmas disease,” is a genetic disorder caused by missing or defective clotting factor nine.
People with hemophilia A or B bleed longer than others. Bleeding can occur internally, into the joints and muscles, skin, head, urine or stool, or externally, from small cuts, dental procedures, nosebleeds, circumcisions, or injuries. (15) The severity of hemophilia a person has is determined by the amount of clotting factors in the blood. The lower the number of factors, the more likely bleeding will occur. A patient’s plasma level of factor eight or nine must fall below 50 percent (half of what is needed to form a clot) to produce signs and symptoms. (14)
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common blood disorder, affecting 0.6 percent to 1.3 percent of the general population. (17) It is a bleeding disorder that affects both men and women, the result of a lack of protein in the blood called von Willebrand Factor (VWF).
Hematocrit, Age, And Survival In A Wild Vertebrate Population
When a person starts bleeding, VWF in the blood sticks to the platelets. This helps them stay together, like glue, to form clots at the injury site and stop bleeding. When a person has VWD, the clot may take longer to form or not form properly, and bleeding may stop. As a result, frequent and hard-to-stop nosebleeds, bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding, and longer-than-usual bleeding after injury, surgery, childbirth, or dental work may appear.
Most people with VWD are hereditary. While rare, people can get VWD without a family history of the disease through a spontaneous mutation. It is also rare for people to acquire VWD later in life because of an underlying medical condition. This can happen when a person’s immune system destroys VWF, often due to illness or the use of other drugs.
EMS should treat bleeding in people with hemophilia or VWD by applying direct pressure to the injury site. The most important consideration for EMS providers is to transport the patient to the closest facility with a hemophilia treatment center. The center usually administers clotting factor cofactors and concentrates for patients. When patients need to know where the center is closest to them, EMS providers can find the one closest to the scene at: https://dbdgateway.cdc.gov/HTCDirSearch.aspx.. (16)
Hematological disorders are rare in the prehospital arena; However, it is important to understand the physiology behind this disease state. Increased knowledge will allow healthcare providers to perform better evaluations and better understand treatment for these patients.
Low Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Rbc, And Platelets
Chris Ebright is the lead instructor for the University of Toledo EMS Program in Toledo, Ohio, where he provides all aspects of primary EMS education in-house and external continuing education for many EMS services in northern Ohio. Chris has been a Nationally Registered paramedic for 27 years, providing primary EMS response and critical care transport. He has taught hundreds of first responders, EMTs, paramedics, and nurses with his trademark whiteboard sessions, including students from the Cayman Islands, India, and Australia. Chris is also a frequent contributor of articles to the Limmer Education website and has been a featured presenter at numerous local, state, and national EMS conferences over the past 15 years. Chris holds a Bachelor of Education from the University
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