What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes – Type 2 Diabetes: This lecture examines type 2 diabetes including its definitions, symptoms, risk factors, diet, disease, treatment, medications, and more!

The lectures and comments below were written by guest author Charlotte Watson, and the medical graphics were created and provided by EZmed.

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which the body’s ability to produce or suppress insulin, resulting in elevated blood glucose (blood sugar).

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Symptoms, Diet, Medication, Treatment, Risk Factors, Definition — Ezmed

Diabetes mellitus comes from the Greek word “diabetes” which means over, and the Latin word “mellitus” which means sweet.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic problem in which the body’s response to insulin decreases, called insulin resistance.

However, over time, the increase in insulin production and release leads to insulin deficiency.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in the elderly (over 45 years old) with the highest diagnosis at the age of 60 years.

Insulin Resistance: Diet, Symptoms, And More

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Definition: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body’s response to insulin decreases (insulin resistance) and insulin secretion from the pancreas decreases, leading to high blood glucose levels. .

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: This lecture examines type 2 diabetes, symptoms, causes, complications, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and more!

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by insulin resistance and reduced insulin production, which causes high blood sugar levels.

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

High blood glucose, with the inability of the cells to consume glucose, causes many symptoms.

Lifestyle Factors And Insulin Resistance

Type 2 diabetes usually has a slower onset than type 1 diabetes, with symptoms appearing over months to years (type 1 symptoms appear in days to weeks).

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes include increased thirst (polydipsia), increased hunger (polyphagia), weight loss, fatigue, urination more (polyuria), blurred vision, numbness, etc.

Many of the risk factors listed above are causes of insulin resistance – See the “Causes of Type 2 Diabetes” section below!

A child who has a parent with type 2 diabetes has a 40% chance of developing it.

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Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 Risk Factors: Risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, diabetes, family history history, age, race, gestational diabetes, etc.

To better understand the cause and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, let’s take a brief look at the anatomy and function of the pancreas and insulin.

The transpyloric plane is a reflection between the suprasternal notch (jugular notch) and the upper border of the pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of the L1 vertebrae.

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

The head of the pancreas is in the curve of the duodenum, and the tail is in the hilum of the spleen.

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Anatomy of the Pancreas: Location and labeling of the pancreas and its parts including the head, uncinate process, neck, body, and tail.

The beta cells will be affected in this lecture because they are responsible for producing and releasing insulin into the blood.

Functions of the Pancreas: digestive (exocrine) and hormone (endocrine) functions of the pancreas include glucagon (alpha cells), insulin (beta cells), and somatostatin (delta cells) release.

Insulin is responsible for controlling blood glucose levels in the body by allowing the movement of glucose into the cells.

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin continues to be released by the pancreatic beta cells (see above) at low levels throughout the day, which helps:

When the beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into the blood, insulin binds to insulin receptors on the surface of the body’s cells.

This cascade increases the recruitment of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from the blood vessels to the plasma membrane of the cell.

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

GLUT4 is the major transporter responsible for absorbing glucose from the blood vessels and into the cell.

What’s The Difference Between Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes?

How does insulin work? Insulin receptor signaling pathway: Insulin binds to insulin receptors that activate GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. GLUT4 allows glucose to enter the cell.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreatic beta cells release less insulin than the body needs (less insulin), and the cells in the body do not respond to insulin (insulin resistance).

This means that glucose cannot enter the cell through the blood vessels – See the function of insulin above.

More simply, the blood contains sugar (glucose) but the sugar cannot enter the cells due to reduced insulin levels and ultimately a total lack of insulin.

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To compensate for insulin resistance and maintain normal glucose levels, pancreatic beta cells will begin to increase insulin synthesis and release.

The increase in insulin production and secretion is temporarily corrected to overcome the lack of insulin sensitivity and allow the body’s cells to consume glucose.

However, the increase in insulin production and release will eventually lead to beta cell transformation and/or destruction.

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

When the level of insulin secreted by beta cells is not enough to compensate for the lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors, the patient will begin to have symptoms of diabetes.

Mechanisms Of Muscle Insulin Resistance And The Cross‐talk With Liver And Adipose Tissue

Type 2 Diabetes Pathophysiology: Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells, resulting in high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

The combination of insulin resistance and insufficient insulin results in an increase in blood glucose levels in the liver.

As insulin is not recognized by the insulin receptors of the liver, the liver cannot take the glucose from the blood to store it.

This makes the liver inappropriately respond as if the blood sugar is low (when in fact it is high), resulting in increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.

Beta Cell Function And Failure In Type 2 Diabetes

Gluconeogensis = Production of glucose in the liver; Glycogenolysis = Breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver, released as glucose in the blood

Type 2 Diabetes Pathophysiology: Insulin resistance of the liver cells and reduced insulin release from the pancreas can make the liver “feel” low blood glucose, resulting in an increase in gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and blood glucose levels are higher than normal.

Patients with symptoms of diabetes mellitus only need 1 biochemical test to confirm their diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

Prediabetes = Blood sugar is higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes

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Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis (US): Charts for normal, prediabetes, and diabetes using hemoglobin A1C, rapid blood glucose test, oral glucose test, and blood glucose test not enough

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (UK, Canada, Australia): Guide to blood glucose in normal, prediabetes, and diabetes using hemoglobin A1C, fasting blood glucose test, fasting blood glucose test mouth, and blood test for blood deficiency.

Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) is a simple blood test that measures a patient’s average blood sugar for the past 2-3 months (8-12 weeks).

It measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen).

Figure 7 From Fatty Liver As A Consequence And Cause Of Insulin Resistance: Lessons From Type 2 Diabetic Liver.

HbA1c is affected by changes in red blood cells, so it should not be used in patients with diseases affecting the cells, such as hemoglobinopathies, hemolysis, iron deficiency anemia, or HIV.

IMPORTANT – It is important to remember that although a high HbA1c can diagnose type 2 diabetes, a low HbA1c cannot rule it out!

A fasting blood glucose test (also known as fasting blood glucose, FPG) is a blood test that measures blood sugar levels after not eating or drinking (except water) for at least 8 hours before the test. .

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

Patients usually start fasting at midnight and have a blood test in the morning before breakfast.

Pdf] Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) involves taking a quick blood glucose test first, then the patient drinks a drink containing 75 g of glucose.

The blood sugar is measured again, 2 hours after drinking the drink to measure how the blood sugar has changed.

A random blood glucose test (also known as random plasma glucose) is a blood test that checks blood sugar at a random time even at the last meal.

In the search for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the patient should have their lipid profile and urine tested to detect proteinuria (protein in the urine) and ketones.

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Because of the complications of diabetes, the patient will be seen by many specialists including general practitioners, ophthalmologists, diabetes specialists, doctors , doctors, and nutritionists.

Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Management of type 2 diabetes includes diet, exercise, medication, insulin, and glucose monitoring with HbA1c and fingerstick.

As previously mentioned, type 2 diabetes is often caused by metabolic diseases and can often be modified by factors such as obesity, poor diet, lack of exercise, etc. (see reasons above).

What Causes Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

The first line of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, before starting medication, should be health management with lifestyle and lifestyle changes diet to reduce blood sugar.

Insulin Resistance Presentation Pad (50 Sheets Per Pad)

If the patient is overweight, primary care staff may encourage the patient to lose 5-10% of their body weight.

Losing this weight has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk, improve glycemic control, and prevent diabetes.

Patients will also be invited to participate in an educational program to develop skills, knowledge, and confidence in self-management of their diabetes.

If diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes alone are not enough to treat type 2 diabetes and control glucose levels in the target range, then

Understanding Prediabetes And Insulin Resistance: A Pathway To Preventing Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity

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