What Are The Different Types Of Climate – Climate can be defined as the average weather conditions of a region over a long period of time, i.e. 30 years or more. Specifically, climate refers to the mean variability of various meteorological variables such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, humidity, and wind over a long period of time. Earth’s tilt greatly affects the region’s climate along with its geographic location, topography, land use, elevation, and currents flowing from adjacent water bodies. The enormous diversity of life on Earth is believed to be primarily a result of the variety of climates that exist and the climate change events that have occurred in the past.
Distinct horizontal belt-shaped areas of the earth characterized by unique weather patterns and characteristics are called climate zones. The concept of climate zones was first introduced in 1884 by the famous German-Russian climatologist Vladimir Köppen in his Köppen climate classification, which is currently the most widely used climate classification system. Climate zones can also be used to correlate climates associated with different biomes, as the climate of a region affects the survival of flora and fauna in that region. Therefore, it is essential to classify the climate of the world into different climate zones, which can further help different climatologists to understand the climate conditions of different regions and observe the changes in them.
- 1 What Are The Different Types Of Climate
- 2 Open And Go Lessons That Inspire Kids To Love Science
- 2.1 Climate Change Deniers Are Over Attacking The Science. Now They Attack The Solutions.
- 2.2 The Climate Zones Of The World
What Are The Different Types Of Climate
According to the Köppen climate classification, a region’s climate can be classified into five broad climate groups based on seasonal characteristics of temperature and precipitation. Each of these broad groups is further divided into various subgroups. Broad groups are denoted by uppercase letters A, B, C, D, and E, and subgroups are represented by lowercase letters f, m, w, and s.
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The letter A indicates that tropical climates predominate among the five major climate groups in the Köppen climate classification. A tropical climate can be defined as a monthly average temperature of 64.4°F or higher during the cooler months and warm temperatures with little variation throughout the year. Regions that experience a tropical climate receive intense sunlight in addition to abundant annual rainfall.
This type of climate is mainly experienced in the tropics below 23.5° latitude in both the northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth. The tropics include areas around the equator, central Africa, southern parts of Asia, Central America, Pacific Ocean islands, parts of northern Australia, and north-central parts of South America. The tropical climate group is further divided into three subgroups: tropical rainforest climate (Af), tropical monsoon climate (Am), and tropical wet and dry climate (Aw or As).
Also known as equatorial climate, this subtype of tropical climate, denoted by Af, is found in regions between 10 and 15° north and south latitudes from the equator. Areas experiencing this type of climate have high mean annual temperatures (70°F to 85°F), small temperature ranges, and high rainfall throughout the year, so there are no distinct dry or wet seasons. Some regions that experience this type of climate include the East Indies, the northern Congo Basin of Africa, and the upper Amazon Basin of South America. Due to the heavy rainfall throughout the year, there are several types of trees in this area. Natural vegetation unique to tropical rainforest climates includes banana, bougainvillea, Bengal bamboo, coconut trees, kuray and durian.
Children going to school in heavy rains during the monsoon season in India. Editorial credit: bodom / Shutterstock.com
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Also known as subtropical climates, this subtropical climate subtype, denoted by Am, is found in South and Southeast Asia; West and Central Africa; Central America; Central part of South America; and parts of northern Australia, North America and the Caribbean. Areas experiencing this type of climate mean monthly temperatures above 64°F, small annual temperature ranges, uneven precipitation throughout the year (with heavy precipitation in summer), and a short dry season in winter. Natural vegetation unique to tropical monsoon climates includes bamboo, cedar, rosewood, sandalwood and teak.
Also known as tropical savanna climate, this tropical climate subtype is represented by Aw for dry winters and dry summers. Tropical savanna climates are common in Asia, central Africa, and parts of northern and eastern Australia, Central America, North America, South America, the Pacific Islands, and some Caribbean islands. The average annual temperature ranges between 68°F and 86°F and the annual precipitation varies from 700 to 1000 mm. Winter is usually the driest, with less than 60 mm of rainfall. Areas experiencing a savanna climate are covered with flat grassland vegetation including lemongrass, red oat grass, rhodes grass, star grass, and elephant grass.
Also known as desert climate or arid climate, this climate is found in regions where there is an excess of evaporation compared to the amount of precipitation received. It should be noted that if an area receives less than 50% of the total annual rainfall, it is classified as a desert climate or BW. If the annual rainfall is 50 to 100% of the total rainfall, it is classified as a semi-arid or steppe climate. After polar climates, hot desert climates are the second most common climate type on Earth, covering more than 14.2% of the planet’s land area. The dry climate group is further divided into two subgroups: hot desert climate (BWh) and cold desert climate (BWk).
This dry climate is mostly experienced in the subtropics between 20° and 30° north and south latitudes across large parts of North Africa, northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, western Asia, interior Australia, northern Mexico, coastal areas of Peru. Chile, and southwestern United States. Average temperatures during summers range from 84°F to 95°F and afternoon temperatures vary from 109°F to 115°F. In contrast, during the colder months, nighttime temperatures can drop below freezing under clear skies.
The Climate Zones Of The World
This subspecies can be experienced in temperate zones located in the rain shadow area of high mountains. Cold desert climates are found at higher elevations compared to hot desert climates and have hot, dry summers and cold, dry winters. Some of the regions that experience this type of climate include the Gobi Desert, the Patagonian Desert, the Taklamakan Desert, parts of the Great Basin Desert, the Ladakh region, etc.
The climate type is found in the mid-latitude regions that lie between the tropics and polar regions. Compared to tropical climates, regions with temperate climates have wider temperature ranges throughout the year as well as distinct seasonal variations. Temperate climates are influenced not only by latitude but also by prevailing wind direction, ocean currents, terrain and elevation. Based on monthly temperature, precipitation and the coldest month, the temperate climate group can be further divided into several smaller climate zones. these are:
Marked by long, hot, humid summers and cool, mild winters, this climate zone is typically experienced in the southeastern part of all continents except Antarctica, between 25° and 40° latitude. The average temperature during the coldest month varies between 27°F and 64°F, while the average temperature during the hottest month is 72°F or higher. Precipitation is mostly experienced during the summer months and is accompanied by heavy thunderstorms and often tropical cyclones. Winter precipitation is often associated with large storms led by westerlies.
This humid temperate climate subtype is characterized by hot summers and cool winters with low temperature extremes. Oceanic climates are found in regions located between latitudes 45 and 63 in both hemispheres, particularly in New Zealand, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, southern Chile, the northwestern part of America, and parts of northwestern Europe. During the coldest month, the mean temperature is 32°F or higher, and during the warmest month, the mean temperature is below 72°F. Therefore, compared to regions with a continental climate, summers are slightly cooler for regions experiencing an oceanic climate.
Biomes As Biogeographical Climate Zones Division In Outline Collection Set. Different Weather Environments And Habitat Description Vector Illustration. Savanna, Marine, Desert And Tundra Examples. Stock Vector
Areas with this type of climate are located closer to the polar regions and experience long, mild winters and short, cool summers. These areas also receive relatively more snowfall than other places with a temperate oceanic climate. The average monthly temperature in this climate zone does not fall below 26.6°F, and the maximum daytime temperature during the hottest month remains below 63°F. Coastal Iceland, Scotland, northwestern Norway, the Faroe Islands, the Aleutian Islands, Argentina, Chile, and the southern Alps experience a subpolar oceanic climate.
Areas with this type of climate experience hot summers and dry winters. The average temperature during the coldest month exceeds 32°F. The average temperature for at least one month is around 71.6°F and for four months the mean temperature is above 50°F.
Also known as temperate oceanic climate with monsoon influence, this type of climate can be experienced at high altitudes located within the tropics or subtropics. Areas with this type of climate receive less rainfall during the winter months as compared to other lower elevation areas at similar latitudes. Places in the tropics that experience this type of climate are spring-like
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