The Primary Function Of Cellular Respiration Is To – Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway that uses glucose to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an organic compound that the body can use for energy. A molecule of glucose can produce a net of 30-32 ATP.
Cellular respiration is used to generate usable ATP energy to support other reactions in the body. ATP is particularly important for energetically favorable reactions that would not otherwise occur without energy input.
- 1 The Primary Function Of Cellular Respiration Is To
- 2 Adenosine Triphosphate (atp)
- 3 Nad+ Metabolism: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms And Therapeutic Potential
The Primary Function Of Cellular Respiration Is To
Cellular respiration has three main steps: glycolysis; citric acid (TCA) or Krebs cycle; and the electron transport chain, where oxidative phosphorylation occurs. The TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation require oxygen, while glycolysis can occur under anaerobic conditions.
Surprising Facts About Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis is the primary breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, a three-carbon structure in the cytoplasm. Pyruvate then moves into the mitochondrial matrix where a transition step called pyruvate oxidation occurs. In this process, pyruvate dehydrogenase converts the three-carbon pyruvate to the two-carbon acetyl-CoA. The TCA cycle begins when acetyl-CoA combines with a four-carbon oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon citrate. Since each molecule of glucose produces 2 pyruvate molecules, it takes two turns to completely break down the original glucose through the Krebs cycle.
Finally, the electron transport chain is a series of redox reactions driven by high-energy electrons that pump protons across the membrane, creating a proton gradient. Together, an electrochemical gradient is created. At the end of the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor, O2, combines with protons to form water (H2O). Meanwhile, protons flow back to the mitochondrial matrix for ATP synthesis.
Cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of every cell in the body. Glycolysis occurs inside the cytoplasm, while the TCA cycle occurs inside the matrix of the mitochondria. Meanwhile, oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane, protons diffuse across the membrane and then back into the matrix.
The reactants of cellular respiration vary at each stage, but initially, it requires an input of glucose, ATP, and NAD+. NAD+, a nicotinamide derived from vitamin B3, is a universal electron acceptor that is crucial in cellular respiration. Another important universal electron acceptor is FAD, a flavin nucleotide derived from vitamin B2. These acceptors are often used in catabolic processes and are reduced to NADH and FADH2, respectively.
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Glycolysis requires an input of glucose, two ATP, two ADP and two NAD+. The reactants for pyruvate oxidation are pyruvate, NAD+ and coenzyme A (CoA). A TCA cycle requires Acetyl-CoA, one ADP, three NAD+ and one FAD. Finally, oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain reactants use ADP, NADH, FADH2 and O2.
The ultimate end products of cellular respiration are ATP and H2O. Glycolysis produces two pyruvate molecules, four ATP (a net of two ATP), two NADH, and two H2O. Therefore, without the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is the only process that can occur and only two ATP molecules can be produced for each glucose molecule.
When oxygen is present, pyruvate oxidation produces one acetyl-CoA, one NADH, and one CO2 per pyruvate molecule. The TCA cycle then yields one GTP (ie, an energy-rich compound similar to ATP used in a low pH environment), three NADH, one FADH2, and two CO2. NADH and FADH2 can be used by the electron transport chain to generate more ATP as part of oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain generate 28-30 ATP and 28-30 H2O per glucose. As a result, the entire process of cellular respiration yields 30-32 ATP per molecule of glucose.
Cellular respiration has three primary rate-determining enzymes. These enzymes catalyze the rate-limiting steps, which are the slowest reactions in the series.
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The rate-determining enzyme in glycolysis is phosphofructokinase-1, or PFK-1, which converts fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate. It is stimulated by AMP, fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate and inhibited by ATP and citrate.
In the TCA cycle, the rate-determining enzyme is isocitrate dehydrogenase, which converts isocitrate to ɑ-ketoglutarate. Certain reactions are stimulated by ADP and inhibited by ATP and NADH.
Several diseases can affect cellular respiration. Because cellular respiration is so important for bodily function, many of these diseases affect individuals severely.
The most common diseases affecting glycolysis are pyruvate kinase deficiency, erythrocyte hexokinase deficiency, and glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency. These diseases are usually inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and those who are homozygous (ie, have two affected genes), develop hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly.
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Pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency can interfere with pyruvate oxidation. This can lead to lactic acidosis characterized by increased serum alanine due to lactate build-up and pyruvate build-up which then ferments to lactic acid. Babies born with this deficiency can have neurological defects, and management of the disease usually involves a keto-diet or high-fat diet.
There are several enzymes in the TCA cycle that can be affected and result in disease, including succinyl-CoA synthase and fumarase. Many people with this disorder have involuntary muscle spasms and postures, called dystonia, and are deaf.
Mitochondrial myopathies are genetic disorders that can affect the production of enzymes involved in the electron transport chain or oxidative phosphorylation. These diseases are classically characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue and may include muscle paralysis.
In addition, exposure to high doses of certain drugs or toxic chemicals can affect the electron transport chain or oxidative phosphorylation. Substances that can directly inhibit complexes of the electron transport chain include carbon monoxide and cyanide. Other substances can inhibit ATP synthase, such as oligomycin, or disrupt the coupling between the electron transport chain and ATP synthase (ie, an electron transport chain uncoupler), such as aspirin or 2, 4-dinitrophenol.
Adenosine Triphosphate (atp)
Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that break down glucose to produce ATP, which can be used to power many reactions throughout the body. Cellular respiration has three main steps: glycolysis, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol, the citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, and oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The starting reagents for cellular respiration include glucose, ATP and NAD+; And the final products include ATP and H2O. Rate-determining enzymes for cellular respiration include phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Diseases affecting cellular respiration usually disrupt one or more enzymes involved in the process, such as pyruvate kinase or succinyl-CoA-synthase.
Gray, L. R., Tompkins, S. C., & Taylor, E. B. (2014). Pyruvate metabolism and regulation of human disease. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 71(14), 2577-2604. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-013-1539-2
Horiike, K., Ishida, T., & Miura, R. (1996). How many water molecules are produced during the complete oxidation of glucose? Reply to Robert A. Mitchell. In Biochemical Education, 24(4), 208-209. Retrieved from https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1016/S0307-4412%2896%2900122-7?__cf_chl_jschl_tk__=pmd_xotp7oLVE_TSoyKWOKUDUH4_VOQUDUH4_5 5263810-0-gqNtZGzNAlCjcnBszQjl
Morava, E., & Carrozzo, R. (2014). Krebs cycle disorder. Blau N., Duran M., Gibson K., Dionisi VC C. (Eds.) Physician’s Guide to the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-up of Inherited Metabolic Diseases. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40337-8_20 ATP production ATP synthesis Chemical reactions Electron transport chain Energy production Glycolysis Krebs cycle Mitochondria
Nad+ Metabolism: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms And Therapeutic Potential
Cellular respiration is a fundamental process that occurs in all living organisms. It is the set of metabolic reactions that convert nutrients, such as glucose, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Although most people have a basic understanding of cellular respiration, there are several surprising and interesting things about this important process that are not commonly known. In this article, we will explore ten interesting facts about cellular respiration that will give you a deeper understanding of the complexity and importance of this biological process. From the role of mitochondria to the various stages involved, these will shed light on the inner workings of cellular respiration and its significance in sustaining life.
Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert glucose and other organic molecules into usable energy in the form of ATP. It is a fundamental process that occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.
Although the most efficient form of cellular respiration requires oxygen and is known as aerobic respiration, some organisms can carry out anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen. This process, also known as fermentation, produces less ATP but allows cells to continue producing energy in an oxygen-deprived environment.
Cellular respiration involves a series of interconnected biochemical reactions, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. These reactions are carefully controlled to maximize the production of ATP and minimize the production of harmful byproducts.
Cellular Respiration Review (article)
The electron transport chain is the final stage of cellular respiration, where most ATP is generated. Through a series of redox reactions, electrons are transferred along the chain, ultimately leading to the synthesis of ATP. This process is highly efficient and generates most of the cell’s energy.
Although glucose is the most common substrate for cellular respiration, other molecules can also serve as fuel sources. These include fatty acids from lipids and amino acids from proteins. Cells have the ability to break down these molecules and channel them into cellular respiratory pathways.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place
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