The Main Function Of Vitamin K Is – 2 Objectives After completing this lecture, second-year students will be able to: Identify the types and sources of vitamin K. Understand the role of vitamin K in blood coagulation. Recognize the importance of g-carboxylation of glutamic acid in coagulation proteins. vitamin K deficiency
Sources and daily needs Functions: Synthesis of g-carboxyglutamate in: Prothrombin and blood clotting factors Interaction of prothrombin with platelets Osteocalcin Protein C and S (anticoagulant proteins) Deficiency and disorders Clinical manifestations
- 1 The Main Function Of Vitamin K Is
- 2 Are You Having Breathing Difficulties? You May Be Low On Vitamin K, Says Study
- 3 Vitamins: Drivers Of Cell Processes
- 4 Vitamin K + D3
- 5 Vitamin K Medical Infographic With Most Important Health Benefits. Best Sources Of Vitamin K
The Main Function Of Vitamin K Is
Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Vitamin K3 (Menadione) – synthetic form Food sources: cabbage, kale, spinach, egg yolk, liver Cabbage Kale Spinach
Are You Having Breathing Difficulties? You May Be Low On Vitamin K, Says Study
Menaquinone: intestinal bacteria Synthesis by intestinal bacteria meets daily vitamin K requirement even without dietary supplementation Menadione: synthetic form A precursor of menaquinone
Infants (0-1 years): 2-2.5 Children (1-8): 30-55 Men (19+): 120 Women (19+): 90 Pregnancy / breastfeeding: 90 / 90 UL: Not determined
8 Functions of vitamin K coenzyme for the synthesis of prothrombin and clotting factors in the liver Prothrombin and clotting factors are proteinaceous in nature Synthesis of prothrombin, clotting factors II, VII, IX, X requires carboxylation of their glutamic acid residue (Glu)
10 Functions of Vitamin K Mature prothrombin and clotting factors contain g-carboxyglutamate (Gla) after the carboxylation reaction Vitamin K is essential for the carboxylase enzyme involved The dihydroquinone form of vitamin K is essential for this reaction
Solved 2.1. List The Fat Soluble Vitamins, And Give A
Structural analogues of vitamin K Inhibit the activation of vitamin K to the form of hydroquinone (reductase enzyme inhibition) Prothrombin and clotting factors are not carboxylated, so blood coagulation time increases after injury
Carboxylated prothrombin contains two carboxylate groups (COO–). These groups bind to Ca2+ forming a prothrombin-calcium complex. The complex then binds to phospholipids on the platelet surface (important for blood clotting) Converting prothrombin to thrombin and initiating clot formation
Osteocalcin is a protein that rebuilds bones. Also called Bone Gla Protein (BGP) Involved in bone formation, mineralization and resorption g-carboxyglutamate is required for binding of osteocalcin to hydroxyapatite (calcium mineral) in bone. The binding mechanism is similar to that of prothrombin. platelet binding
Deficiencies are rare: synthesized by gut bacteria Hypoprothrombinemia: prolonged blood clotting time Some second-generation cephalosporin drugs cause this condition due to warfarin-like effects (antibiotics given with vit. K) Can affect bone growth and mineralization Lipid malabsorption can lead to vitamin deficiencies K
Foods High In Vitamin K: 40 Of The Best
Prolonged antibiotic therapy Especially in marginally malnourished individuals (eg debilitated geriatric patients) Gastrointestinal infections with diarrhea Both of the above destroy bacterial flora leading to vitamin K deficiency
Deficiency most common in newborns Newborns lack intestinal flora Human milk can only provide 1/5 of vitamin K Supplements are given intramuscularly at birth
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn Bruising tendency, ecchymotic spots (bleeding under the skin) Mucosal bleeding Posttraumatic bleeding/internal bleeding Prolonged prothrombin time
21 Vitamin K toxicity Prolonged supplementation of large doses of menadione can cause: hemolytic anemia jaundice due to the toxic effect on the erythrocyte membrane
Vitamins: Drivers Of Cell Processes
Chapter 28, pp Richard Harvey and Denise Ferrier Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations Thomas M Devlin. 6th Edition Chapter 28, p
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Life Extension, Vitamins D And K With Sea Iodine, 60 Capsules
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Vitamin K: Double Ties Beyond Coagulation Insights into the differences between vitamins K1 and K2 in health and disease
Vitamin K + D3
By Maurice Halder Maurice Halder Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, †, Ploingarm Petsophonsakul Ploingarm Petsophonsakul Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, †, Asim Cengiz Akbulut Asim Cengiz Akbulut Scilit Preprints.org, Google Scholar Angel Pavlina† Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, †, Frode Bohan Frode Bohan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Eric Anderson Eric Anderson Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Katarzyna Maresz Katarzyna Maresz Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, Rafa Krael Kramann Scilit 4, Rafa Krael Kramann Preprints .org Google Scholar 1 and Leon Schurgers Leon Schurgers Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, *
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
(This article belongs to the special issue Molecular aspects of the action of vitamin K and its related compounds)
Vitamin K is an essential bioactive compound required for the optimal functioning of the body. Vitamin K can be present in different isoforms, which are distinguished by two main structures, namely, phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2). The difference in structure between K1 and K2 is seen in different absorption rates, tissue distribution and bioavailability. Although different in structure, both act as a cofactor for the enzyme gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, encompassing both hepatic and extrahepatic activity. Only carboxylated proteins are active and promote a health profile such as hemostasis. Furthermore, vitamin K2 in the form of MK-7 has been shown to be a bioactive compound in the regulation of osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, cancer and inflammatory diseases without the risk of negative side effects or overdose. This review is the first to highlight differences between vitamin K1 and K2 isoforms through source, function, and extrahepatic activity.
Vitamin K Medical Infographic With Most Important Health Benefits. Best Sources Of Vitamin K
Vitamin K was first identified in 1936 as a key factor in blood clotting. When chickens were fed a low-fat diet, they showed significantly lower coagulation capacity, resulting in severe bleeding . The lipid fraction of the diet was analyzed and a new antihemorrhagic factor was discovered. This lipid-soluble factor is given the first letter of the available alphabet that coincides with the first letter of the German word “coagulation” and is only considered essential because of its antihemorrhagic property . Since then, non-coagulant functions have been discovered that have attracted research interest in several areas worldwide. The vitamin K family consists of several similarly structured fat-soluble molecules containing a 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone ring structure called menadione. Menadione (K3) is of synthetic origin, but due to the reported adverse effects of hemolysis and liver toxicity it will not be included in this review [2, 3, 4]. Naturally, vitamin K occurs as two vitamers: vitamin K1 (also known as phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (also referred to as menaquinones (MK)). Phylloquinone contains a phytyl side chain consisting of 4 prenyl units . Menaquinones contain an unsaturated aliphatic side chain with a variable number of prenyl units. The number of prenyl units indicates the corresponding type of menaquinone. Vitamin K2 can be divided into subtypes, i.e. short chain (ie menaquinone-4; MK-4) and long chain (ie MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9). There is currently no official Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for K2. However, K2’s health-improving effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD), bone metabolism, chronic kidney disease, and certain cancers have been the subject of research for the past few decades. The aim of this review is to highlight and elaborate on the differences between K1 and K2, according to source and function, with an emphasis on the non-coagulant mechanisms of vitamin K.
Vitamin K1 is the predominant form of vitamin K present in the diet [6, 7]. K1 is predominantly found in green vegetables and plant chlorophylls, while K2 menaquinones are synthesized by bacteria  and are primarily found in foods where bacteria are part of the production process [5, 9]. Major sources of K1 include spinach, cabbage, and kale, and dietary K1 absorption is increased in the presence of butter or oil. In addition to leafy greens, K1 can also be found in fruits such as avocados, kiwis, and grapes [10, 11]. The main known sources of K2 are fermented foods, meat and dairy products  (Figure 1). Fermentation of soybeans with Bacillus natto produces Natto, a Japanese dish that contains the highest K2 content, especially MK-7 (321 ng/g K1 and 10,985 ng/g K2) . Dairy products are the second richest dietary source of K2. Hard cheeses are considered to have
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