Structure And Function Of The Circulatory System

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Structure And Function Of The Circulatory System

Structure And Function Of The Circulatory System

Michael Francis Oliver, Professor, National Heart and Lung Institute, London. Duke of Edinburgh Professor of Cardiology, University of Edinburgh, 1979–89. Editor of Coronary Heart Disease in Young Women and other journals.

The Circulatory System

Stanley W. Jacob Gerlinger is a professor of surgery at Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland. Author of Human Structure and Function.

Encyclopedia editors review their broad subject matter, whether encyclopedia editors have years of experience working on the content or advanced training. They write new content and review and edit content received from contributors.

The human cardiovascular system is an organ system that transports blood to all parts of the body through blood vessels, transports nutrients and oxygen to tissues, and removes carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is a closed tube system that moves blood through the muscular heart. Both the pulmonary and systemic circuits consist of arterial, capillary, and venous components.

The vascular system is the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that supply blood to the body’s tissues.

Human Circulatory System

The main function of the heart is to act as a muscular pump that moves blood to and through the arteries throughout the body. Arteries, which receive this blood at high pressure and speed and carry it throughout the body, have thick walls made of flexible fibrous tissue and muscle cells. Arterial tree – the branching system of arteries ends in short, narrow, muscular vessels called arterioles, from which blood enters simple endothelial tubes (i.e. tubes made of endothelial or lining cells) called capillaries. These thin, microscopic capillaries receive and distribute vital cellular substances and waste products. From the capillaries, deoxygenated and waste-product-filled blood moves more slowly and under lower pressure into smaller vessels called venules, which form veins and eventually guide the blood back to the heart.

This article describes the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels, and the technologies used to assess and monitor the health of these key components of the human cardiovascular system. To discuss diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels

An adult’s heart is slightly larger than a clenched fist, measuring on average 13 × 9 × 6 cm (5 × 3.5 × 2.5 in) and weighing approximately 10.5 ounces (300 grams). It is conical in shape, with a broad base pointing up and to the right, and an apex down and to the left. It is located in the thoracic (chest) cavity behind the breastbone (chest), trachea (trachea), esophagus, in front of the descending aorta, between the lungs, and above the diaphragm (muscular division between the chest and chest). abdominal cavity). About two-thirds of the heart is to the left of the midline.

Structure And Function Of The Circulatory System

The heart is suspended in its own membrane sac, or pericardium. The strong outer portion of the sac, or fibrous pericardium, adheres closely to the diaphragm below, the lateral medial pleura, and the anterior sternum. It gradually merges with the superior vena cava and pulmonary (pulmonary) arteries and veins. (The middle part of the interstitium of the lungs is surrounded by the pleura of the mediastinum, a continuation of the membrane that covers the chest. The superior vena cava is the main channel for venous blood flow from the chest, arms, neck, and head.)

Thousand Circulatory Royalty Free Images, Stock Photos & Pictures

A smooth, serous (moisture-secreting) membrane lines the fibrous pericardium and then bends back to cover the heart. The part of the membrane covering the fibrous pericardium is called the visceral serous layer (visceral pericardium or epicardium) and the parietal serous layer covering the heart (parietal pericardium).

The two layers of the serous membrane are usually separated by 10 to 15 ml (0.6 to 0.9 cubic inches) of pericardial fluid, which is secreted by the serous membrane. The small space created by the separation is called the pericardial cavity. Pericardial fluid lubricates the two membranes and their surfaces slide over each other with each heartbeat. Fluid is filtered into the pericardial space through the visceral and parietal pericardium.

The heart is divided into right and left halves by a septum or partition, and each side is divided into two chambers. The upper chambers and atria are separated by a partition called the interatrial septum; the lower chambers and ventricles are separated by the interventricular septum. The atria receive blood from various parts of the body and send it to the ventricles. The ventricles in turn pump blood to the lungs and other parts of the body.

The right atrium, or upper right part of the heart, is a thin-walled chamber that receives blood from all tissues except the lungs. Three veins drain into the right atrium, and the superior and inferior vena cava bring blood from the upper and lower parts of the body, and drain the blood itself from the coronary sinus of the heart. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle. The right ventricle, the lower right part of the heart, is the chamber where the pulmonary artery carries blood to the lungs.

The Mammalian Cardiac Cycle

The left atrium, which is the upper left part of the heart, is smaller and has thicker walls than the right atrium. The left atrium receives the four pulmonary veins that bring oxygenated blood from the lungs. Blood flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The left ventricle, the lower left part of the heart, has walls three times thicker than the right ventricle. Blood is pumped from this chamber through the aorta to all parts of the body except the lungs.

Shallow grooves called interventricular sulci, which contain blood vessels, mark the separation between the ventricles on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the heart. There are two grooves on the outer surface of the heart. One is that the atrioventricular groove is located along the line where the right atrium and right ventricle meet; it contains a branch of the right coronary artery (the coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle). The other, the anterior interstitial space, runs along the line between the right and left ventricles and contains a branch of the left coronary artery.

On the posterior surface of the heart, a groove called the posterior longitudinal sulcus marks the division between the right and left ventricles; It contains another branch of the coronary artery. The fourth notch between the left atrium and ventricle houses the coronary sinus, which is the venous blood vessel. There are several terms here. See Ed Sheeran’s song Flow of Blood (song). Check out Youves’ album Cardio-Vascular.

Structure And Function Of The Circulatory System

Human circulatory system (simplified). Red color represents oxygenated blood in the arteries. Blue indicates deoxygenated blood passing through the veins. Capillaries join arteries and veins.

What Are The Three Types Of Blood Vessels And Their Functions?

The circulatory system is a system of organs in humans and other vertebrates that includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood circulating throughout the body.

It includes the cardiovascular system, or vascular system (from the Greek “cardia” meaning heart and the Latin “vascula” meaning vessel), which consists of the heart and blood vessels. The circulatory system has two divisions: the systemic circulation or circuit and the pulmonary circulation or circuit.

The vascular network consists of the large vessels of the heart, including the large arteries and veins; joins other arteries, small arterioles, capillaries (small veins) and other veins. The circulatory system is closed in vertebrates, which means that the blood never leaves the blood vessel network. Some invertebrates, such as arthropods, have circulatory systems. Diploblasts, such as cotton and comb jelly, do not have a circulatory system.

Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; It circulates around the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and collecting and eliminating waste materials. Nutrients in the bloodstream include proteins, minerals, and other components, including hemoglobin, hormones, and gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. These substances provide nourishment, help the immune system fight disease, and help maintain homeostasis by stabilizing temperature and natural pH.

Teaching The Cardiovascular System

In vertebrates, the lymphatic system complements the circulatory system. The lymphatic system removes excess plasma (filtered from the capillaries of the circulatory system as interstitial fluid) away from the body’s tissues and returns the excess fluid to the circulation as lymph.

The lymphatic system is an essential subsystem of the circulatory system; without it, the blood will be depleted of fluid.

And unlike the closed (blood) circulatory system, the lymphatic system is a functional system. Some sources describe it as the secondary circulatory system.

Structure And Function Of The Circulatory System

May affect the circulatory system

Structure And Function Of The Human Cardiovascular System

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