Skin Is Part Of What Organ System – Which represents the first line of defense or physical barrier against the external environment and pathogens. In humans, a set of four major organs combine to form the integumentary system. The integumentary system includes the following:
The integumentary system not only protects the body from pathogens, sunlight, temperature, and injury, but also helps maintain body homeostasis and provides sensation of touch and temperature. In addition, the integumentary system helps maintain the body’s fluid balance, remove waste from the body or eliminate waste from the body, synthesize essential vitamins for the body such as vitamin D, and protect deep tissue. All the organs of the integumentary system work in concert to carry out essential body functions.
- 1 Skin Is Part Of What Organ System
- 1.1 Anatomy Of The Skin
- 1.2 Levels Of Organization And Tissue Types
- 1.3 Skin As An Organ Poster Gcse A Level Access To He Diploma
- 1.4 Human Reproductive System
- 1.5 Human Body’s Organ Systems And Their Function
Skin Is Part Of What Organ System
The integumentary system is an organ system consisting of the skin and its related structures and appendages, e.g. glands, hair, nails, scales, hooves, feathers, etc. Its functions include protection (against harmful factors such as adverse external conditions, dehydration, chemicals and pathogens), homeostasis, thermoregulation, sweating (to eliminate waste), sense of touch, pressure, pain, heat and cold, synthesis of vitamin D in exposure to UV light, storage of water, fat, glucose and vitamin D, tissue repair after minor injuries, etc. In some animals, the integument system also helps them blend in with their surroundings. Chameleons, for example, are capable of camouflage. Their skin can change color to match their surroundings.
Anatomy Of The Skin
The integumentary system is part of the various organ systems that make up the individual. In humans and other animals, the organ systems, in addition to the integumentary system, also include the lymphatic system, the muscular system, the nervous system, the reproductive system, the urinary system, the respiratory system, the skeletal system, and the immune system.
The skin is the outer layer of the body and the largest organ of the human body, covering the entire body from head to toe. Except for sensitive areas such as the eyelids (thinnest skin) and the soles of the feet (thickest skin), human skin as a whole is approximately 2mm thick and spans ~ 1.5 to 2m
The superficial epidermis and the deeper dermis are the two primary layers of human skin. The epidermis is the outermost and hardest layer that forms the first line of defense of the human body. The epidermis consists of multilayered squamous epithelial cells and is further divided into four to five layers:
Cells have stem cells that divide to create epidermal cells that move from the basal layer toward the stratum corneum.
Levels Of Organization And Tissue Types
The epidermis has no blood supply and is dependent on the dermis for nutrients. The dermis is present under the layer of epidermis and connective tissue. Connective tissue forms the lower framework of connective tissue. It is divided into two layers:
Into the epidermis, which are known as dermal papillae. The papillary layer of the dermis is highly vascularized and has loose connective tissue, while the reticular layer of the dermis consists of a denser network of connective tissue.
This reticular layer of dense irregular connective tissue provides skin elasticity. In the lower layer of the dermis are all nerve cells, blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands and various other structures.
Under the dermis and between all the organs is the hypodermis. This layer is largely composed of subcutaneous tissue and is composed of adipose tissue and loose areolar tissue. The hypodermis provides insulation and cushioning of the organs, as it consists of fatty tissue. In addition, this layer connects the skin to the underlying structures via muscles (Figure 1).
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Skin without hair, such as on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, is known as glabrous skin. This skin tends to wrinkle with prolonged exposure.
Nails are made up of a protein called keratin, and these keratin structures are present on the tips of the fingers and toes. The nail grows due to the production of cells from the nail matrix, which pushes the old cells towards the distal end. The visible part of the nail is the nail plate, which covers the nail bed. Nails protect the fingers and toes. Also, nails help with more precise movement and increase sensation. (picture 2)
Hairs protrude from the epidermis. However, hair roots are present in the dermis. The outer visible part of the hair is known as the hair shaft, while the part of the hair that is present in the skin is known as the hair follicle. The hair follicle has a bulbous structure known as the hair bulb, where active hair growth takes place, eventually leading to the vertical growth of the hair shaft.
Hair functions by providing mechanical protection to the skin, regulating body temperature and enhancing sensory function. In the dermis, the arrector pili muscles attach to the hair and this muscle keeps the hair shaft in an upright position, and air trapped between the shaft helps regulate skin temperature. (picture 3)
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The sebaceous glands form the pilosebaceous unit, which consists of the hair follicle, the hair, and the arrector pili muscle. Sebaceous glands secrete protective films. The sebaceous glands produce an oily substance called sebum. Sebum, an oily substance, is a lipid mixture that forms a protective layer on the skin that helps provide additional skin protection and controls fluid loss from the body, helping to maintain cellular fluidity. In addition, this layer provides antimicrobial protection to the skin.
Earwax is produced by the ceruminous glands. Mammary glands, on the other hand, are specialized glands for the production of milk, especially in female mammals that feed their offspring.
The most obvious function of the envelope system is to provide a barrier function against damage, pathogens and environmental factors. The skin is made up of tightly connected cells in several layers that provide physical protection.
The skin forms the first line of the body’s defense system, acting as a physical barrier to prevent pathogens from entering through the skin. Skin cells are tightly packed with connective proteins, which are additionally reinforced with keratin filaments. Lipid sebum and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) form a bio-barrier on the skin that can disrupt microbial membranes. Skin cells such as dermal dendritic cells, macrophages and glands produce AMPs such as cathelicidins and defensins. The lamellar bodies present in the stratum corneum contain lipid components such as sphingomyelin and glucosylceramides that have antimicrobial activity. Cells of the immune system are also found in the skin, such as lymphoid and myeloid cells, while some cells, such as dendritic cells or Langerhans cells, travel and activate immune cells.
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The skin is a highly vascular organ that also has a large surface area. The vascular supply undergoes vasoconstriction or vasodilation to conserve or dissipate heat throughout the body. Blood vessels dilate to increase blood flow and dissipate/release heat as body heat increases. Together with the vascular system, the sweat glands secrete sweat, which cools the body by evaporating. Hair on the skin also helps regulate body temperature. The air trapped between the hairs provides the required body insulation, especially at low ambient temperatures. The skin also has various nerve endings with thermoreceptors that help in body thermoregulation.
Excretion through the human body also occurs through perspiration or perspiration. Depending on lipid/water solubility, metabolites are excreted in sweat or sebum. Vitamin B is excreted in urine or sweat.
Later, in the kidneys, hydroxylated cholecalciferol is converted to its active metabolite form, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D). Calcitriol then increases the absorption of calcium in the gut, which is essential for good bone health.
The skin is also supplied by many nervous systems, which also have sensory receptors for touch, vibration, pain and temperature. There are four main touch receptors in the skin, namely:
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Tactile stimuli are detected by hair cells and their associated longitudinal and circumferential lanceolate ends. While free nerve endings in the epidermis take on harmful stimuli. The adaptive and conductive rates of these receptors change and over time define the body’s response to any stimuli.
As the integumentary system is the first barrier and defense system, it is exposed to many environmental factors, making it susceptible to many diseases. In most pathophysiological conditions, symptoms are seen directly in the sheath system, while some pathophysiological symptoms may be an indirect sign of disease in the human body in other organs.
Inflammation in the pilosebaceous unit causes acne. Acne can be the result of excessive secretion of sebum, which clogs skin pores, or inflammation caused by the bacteria Cutibacterium acnes. Morphologically, acne can be open or closed comedones, nodules, papules and pustules. All these acnes vary in size and appearance. Stress, trauma, diet and hormonal imbalances can cause skin freckles. Hormonal acne typically occurs around the jawline and coincides with the menstrual cycle. Sebaceous glands overproduce sebum when androgen levels increase, which in turn increases acne breakouts. This is because sebum is a medium for
Atopic dermatitis is also known as eczema and can affect both adults and children. Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial disease that may result from genetics, immune imbalances, and breakdown of the epidermal junction/barrier. A protein present, Filaggrin
Human Body’s Organ Systems And Their Function
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