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Show The Kidney In The Human Body

Show The Kidney In The Human Body

James Scott Robson Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Edinburgh; Consultant Physician, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. Author of numerous articles on acid-base and electrolyte metabolism and renal disorders.

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G.A.G. Professor Mitchell of Anatomy; Director, Physiological Laboratory, Victoria University of Manchester, 1946-74. Author of The Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System et al.

Editors of encyclopedias Encyclopedia editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained working on that subject or from studying for an advanced degree. They write new content and review and edit content received from contributors.

The renal system, in humans, is the organ system that includes the kidneys, where urine is produced, and the ureters, bladder, and urethra for the passage, storage, and emptying of urine.

In many respects the human excretory, or urinary, system resembles that of other mammalian species, but has its own unique structural and functional characteristics. Conditions

Kidneys: Facts, Function & Diseases

Emphasizes the elimination function of the system. The kidneys, however, both excrete and actively retain certain substances in the body that are as important to survival as those that are eliminated.

The system includes two kidneys, which regulate the electrolyte composition of the blood and remove dissolved waste products and other substances in excess from the blood; The latter substances are excreted in the urine, which travels from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin muscular tubes called ureters. The bladder is a sac that holds urine until it is excreted through the urethra.

Kidney Bean-shaped, reddish-brown paired organ, long concave on one side and convex on the opposite side. They are usually high in the abdominal cavity and against its posterior wall, on either side of the vertebral column between the 12th thoracic and third lumbar vertebrae, and outside the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdomen.

Show The Kidney In The Human Body

The long axes of the kidneys are aligned with the body, but the upper end (pole) of each kidney is tilted slightly inward toward the spine (vertebral column). In the center of the medial concave border is a deep vertical fissure, the hilus, which leads to a cavity within the kidney known as the renal (kidney) sinus. The hilus is the point of entry and exit of the renal artery and vein, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and extended superior extension of the ureter. Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located under the rib cage, one on each side of your spine.

Renal System Anatomy And Physiology: Video & Anatomy

Healthy kidneys filter about one and a half cups of blood per minute, removing waste and making excess water into urine. Urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin muscular tubes called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract.

Your kidneys remove waste and excess fluid from your body. Your kidneys also remove acids produced by your body’s cells and maintain a healthy balance of water, salts and minerals in your blood – such as sodium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium.

Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron contains a filter, called a glomerulus, and a tubule. Nephrons work through a two-step process: the glomerulus filters your blood, and the tubules return nutrients to your blood and remove wastes.

Each nephron contains a glomerulus to filter your blood and a tubule that returns nutrients to your blood and removes excess waste. Waste and excess water becomes urine.

Coronal Section Of The Kidney: Anatomy And Function

As blood flows into each nephron, it enters a cluster of tiny blood vessels – the glomerulus. The thin walls of the glomerulus allow small molecules, waste, and fluid—mostly water—to pass into the tubules. Large molecules, such as proteins and blood cells, reside in blood vessels.

A blood vessel runs alongside the tubule. As the filtered fluid moves along the tubules, the blood vessels reabsorb almost all of the water, along with the minerals and nutrients your body needs. Tubules help remove excess acid from the blood. The remaining fluid and wastes in the tubules become urine.

Blood flows to your kidneys through the renal arteries. This large blood vessel divides into smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephron. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the tiny blood vessels of the glomeruli and then flows out of your kidney through the renal vein.

Show The Kidney In The Human Body

Your blood circulates through your kidneys several times a day. In a day, your kidneys filter about 150 quarts of blood. Most of the water and other substances that filter through your glomeruli are returned to your blood by the tubules. Only 1 to 2 quarts of urine is passed. Children produce less urine than adults and the amount produced depends on their age.

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Unfiltered blood flows to your kidneys through the renal arteries, and filtered blood exits through your renal veins. The ureters carry urine from the kidneys to your bladder.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases () and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research on many diseases and conditions.

Clinical trials are part of clinical research and central to all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life of people with chronic illnesses. Find out if a clinical trial is right for you.

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (), National Institutes of Health. Translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding of health and disease among patients, health professionals and the public. Content produced by is carefully reviewed by scientists and other experts The kidneys are located behind the abdomen in the retroperitoneal space and filter the blood to produce urine.

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They are located on the left and right sides of the retroperitoneal space and are about 12 cm (4+ 1⁄2 in) long in the adult.

They receive blood from the paired rales; Blood drains from the paired ral veins. Each kidney is connected to a ureter, a tube that carries urine to the bladder.

Kidneys participate in the volume of various body fluids, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and toxin removal. Filtration occurs in the glomerulus: one-fifth of the blood volume that the kidneys filter. Examples of reabsorbed substances are undissolved water, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, and amino acids. Examples of excreted substances are hydrogen, ammonium, potassium and uric acid. Nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult human kidney has about 1 million nephrons, while a mouse kidney has about 12,500 nephrons. Also the kidney functions independently of the nephron. For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D into its active form, calcitriol; and synthesizes erythropoietin and renin hormones.

Show The Kidney In The Human Body

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a leading public health problem worldwide. The estimated worldwide prevalence of CKD is 13.4%, and the need for ral replacement therapy for patients with kidney failure is estimated to be between 5 and 7 million.

Detailed Kidney Positioning In Ventral Cavity Illustration

Methods used in the management of kidney disease include chemical and microscopic examination of the urine (urinalysis), measuring kidney function by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine; and kidney biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; One of these (or both sequences) is almost always used where the ral function drops below 15%. Nephrectomy is often used to treat sickle cell carcinoma.

Renal physiology is the study of kidney function. Nephrology is the medical specialty that deals with diseases related to kidney function: these include CKD, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis. Urology addresses diseases of the kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.

The word “ral” is an adjective meaning “pertaining to the kidney”, and its roots are French or late Latin. While according to some opinions, “Ral” should be replaced with “Kidney” in scientific texts such as “Kidney artery”, other experts suggest to preserve the use of “Ral” with “Ral artery” as appropriate.

Diagram showing human trunk with location of organs The kidneys are located at the vertebral level from T12 to L3.

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In humans, the kidneys are located above the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spine, and in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle.

Asymmetry within the abdominal cavity, due to location

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