Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming – This article discusses atmospheric phomons that cause planetary warming. For general heating or cooling of the Earth’s surface, see Earth’s energy budget. For other uses, see Grehouse (disambiguation).

Greenhouse gases allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphere and heat the planet, but absorb and divert some of the longwave radiation (heat) the planet emits.

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Energy flows down from the sun and up from the earth and its atmosphere. When greenhouse gases block radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface, they prevent that radiation from escaping into space, causing surface temperatures to increase by about 33°C (59°F).

The Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect occurs when greenhouse gases in a planet’s atmosphere trap some of the heat radiating from the planet’s surface, thereby increasing its temperature. This process occurs because stars emit short-wave radiation which passes through greenhouse gases, while planets emit long-wave radiation which is partially absorbed by greenhouse gases. These differences reduce a planet’s cooling rate in response to heating by its host star. Adding greenhouse gases further reduces the rate at which a planet emits radiation into space, thereby increasing the average surface temperature.

Compared to the Earth’s average temperature in the 20th century, which was around 14 °C (57 °F), or a more straight-line average temperature of around 15 °C (59 °F).

In addition to naturally persistent greenhouse gases, burning fossil fuels has increased the amount of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere.

The magnitude of the radiation waves emitted by the Sun and Earth is different because their surface temperatures are different. The sun has a surface temperature of 5,500 °C (9,900 °F), so it emits most of its energy as shortwave radiation in the near-infrared and visible waves (like sunlight). In contrast, the Earth’s surface has a much lower temperature, so it emits longwave radiation at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths (sometimes called thermal radiation or radiated heat).

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A gas is called a greenhouse gas if it absorbs long wave radiation. Earth’s atmosphere only absorbs 23% of incoming shortwave radiation, but absorbs 90% of longwave radiation emitted from the surface.

The existence of the greenhouse effect, although unnamed, was proposed as early as 1824 by Joseph Fourier.

These arguments and evidence were further strengthened by Claude Pouillet in 1827 and 1838. In 1856 Eunice Newton Foote demonstrated that the heating effect of the sun is greater on air with water vapor than on dry air, and the effect is even greater on carbon dioxide. .

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

The greenhouse effect on Earth is defined as: “The effect of infrared radiation from all infrared-absorbing materials in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases (GHGs), clouds, and some aerosols absorb terrestrial radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface and elsewhere in the atmosphere.”

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The enhanced greenhouse effect describes the fact that as the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere increases (as a result of human actions), the natural greenhouse effect increases.

The term greenhouse effect comes from the greenhouse analogy. Both greenhouses and the greenhouse effect work by trapping heat from sunlight, but the way they trap heat is different. Greenhouses retain heat primarily by blocking convection (air movement).

In contrast, the greenhouse effect traps heat by limiting the transfer of radiation through the air and reducing the rate of heat release into space.

Matter emits thermal radiation in an amount that is directly proportional to the fourth power of its temperature. Some of the radiation emitted by the earth’s surface is absorbed by greenhouse gases and clouds. Without this absorption, the average temperature of the Earth’s surface would reach −18 °C (−0.4 °F). However, because some of the radiation is absorbed, the average temperature of the Earth’s surface is about 15°C (59°F). Therefore, the greenhouse effect on Earth can be measured as a change in temperature of 33°C (59°F).

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

). Scientists also measure the greenhouse effect based on how much long-wave thermal radiation leaves the Earth’s surface versus reaches outer space.

Reach space. Thus, the earth’s greenhouse effect can also be measured as a change in energy flow of 159 W/m2.

The greenhouse effect can be expressed as the fraction (0.40) or percentage (40%) of long-wave thermal radiation that leaves the Earth’s surface but does not reach space.

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Whether the greenhouse effect is expressed as a change in temperature or as a change in longwave thermal radiation, the same effect is measured.

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Strengthening the greenhouse effect through additional greenhouse gases from human activities is known as the enhanced greenhouse effect.

Ice core data shows that carbon dioxide varies from values ​​as low as 180 ppm to pre-industrial levels of 270 ppm.

Paleoclimatologists consider variations in carbon dioxide concentrations to be the fundamental factor influencing climate variations on these time scales.

The solar radiation spectrum for direct light both in the Earth’s upper atmosphere and at sea level

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Hotter matter emits shorter wavelengths of radiation. As a result, the Sun emits short-wave radiation like sunlight, while the Earth and its atmosphere emit long-wave radiation. Sunlight includes ultraviolet, visible light, and near-infrared radiation.

Sunlight is reflected and absorbed by the earth and its atmosphere. The atmosphere and clouds reflect about 23% and absorb 23%. The surface reflects 7% and absorbs 48%.

The greenhouse effect is a reduction in the outflow of long wave radiation, thereby affecting the planet’s radiation balance. The radiation spectrum that comes out shows the effects of different greenhouse gases.

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Informally, longwave radiation is sometimes called thermal radiation. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere that passes through the atmosphere and into outer space.

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The greenhouse effect can be seen directly in a graph of the longwave radiation emitting from the earth as a function of frequency (or wavelength). The area between the long-wave radiation curve emitted from the earth’s surface and the outgoing long-wave radiation curve shows the magnitude of the greenhouse effect.

Different substances are responsible for reducing the radiant energy that reaches space at different frequencies; for some frequencies, multiple substances play a role.

Carbon dioxide is known to be responsible for a decrease in outgoing radiation (and an increase in the greenhouse effect) at approximately 667 cm

Each layer of the atmosphere containing greenhouse gases absorbs some of the longwave radiation emitted upwards from the lower layers. It also emits long-wave radiation in all directions, both upwards and downwards, according to the amount it absorbs. This results in less radiant heat loss and more warmth below. Increasing the gas concentration will increase the amount of absorption and emission, causing more heat to be retained at the surface and layers below.

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The strength of the longwave radiation emitted by a planet corresponds to the planet’s effective temperature. Effective temperature is the temperature required for an radiating planet with a uniform temperature (black body) to emit the same amount of energy.

This concept can be used to compare the amount of longwave radiation emitted into space and the amount of longwave radiation emitted by the surface:

Earth’s surface temperature is often reported in terms of the average near-surface air temperature. The temperature is around 15 °C (59 °F),

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Slightly lower than the effective surface temperature. This value is 33 °C (59 °F) warmer than the effective temperature of the Earth as a whole.

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Energy flux is the rate of energy flow per unit area. Energy flux is expressed in units of W/m

, which is the number of joules of energy that passes through one square meter every second. Most fluxes quoted in high-level climate discussions are global values, meaning they are the total energy flow in a tire ball, divided by the surface area of ​​the earth, 5.1×10

The radiation flux coming to and leaving the Earth is important because radiation transfer is the only process capable of exchanging energy between the Earth and the rest of the universe.

The temperature of a planet depends on the balance between incoming radiation and outgoing radiation. If incoming radiation exceeds outgoing radiation, the planet will heat up. If the outgoing radiation exceeds the incoming radiation, the planet will cool. A planet will enter a state of radiation equilibrium, where the strength of the outgoing radiation is equal to the strength of the incoming radiation absorbed.

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The earth’s energy imbalance is the magnitude of the power of incoming sunlight absorbed by the earth’s surface or atmosphere exceeding the power of long wave radiation that goes out into space. Energy imbalance is a fundamental measure that drives surface temperatures.

A UN statement stated, “The EEI is the most important figure determining the prospects for global warming and continued climate change.”

One study argues, “The absolute value of EEI is the most fundamental metric that determines the status of global climate change.”

Relationship Between Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming

Around 2015, indicating that the Earth as a whole is accumulating heat energy and is in the process of becoming warmer.

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More than 90% of the remaining energy is used to warm the oceans, and a much smaller amount is used to heat the land, atmosphere and ice.

Comparison of Earth’s upward flow of longwave radiation in reality and in a hypothetical scario where greenhouse gases and clouds are removed or lose their ability to absorb longwave radiation—without changing Earth’s albedo (i.e., reflection/absorption of sunlight). The top shows the balance between Earth’s heating and cooling as measured in the upper atmosphere (TOA). Panel (a) shows a real situation with an active greenhouse effect.

Panel (b) shows the situation immediately after absorption stops; all long wave radiation

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