Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism

Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism – The social cultural impact of tourism refers to the positive and negative effect or impact of tourism on the cultural heritage, traditions, customs, and social lifestyle of the host communities. This paper will look at the positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism on host communities and tourists, as well as the various factors that influence these impacts.

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Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism

Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism

However, it is important to keep in mind that not all of society’s problems can be attributed to tourism, nor can all positive social developments be attributed to tourism (Liu 2003, p. 25). There are other factors that contribute to the problems and development of society, such as globalization and the influence of the mass media.

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The positive socio-cultural effects of tourism include employment, improvement of infrastructure, transfer of knowledge to a country, and improvement of the economy. These are discussed in the following sections.

In most countries, the tourism sector provides employment opportunities to a large percentage of the population. To facilitate tourism operations, people are hired to work in the hotel industry, the transport sector and in national parks as tour guides (Green 2005, p. 13). The economic benefits derived from tourism in terms of employment of a nation’s population ultimately affect the standard of living of the people.

The development of tourist infrastructure, such as airports and recreational facilities, can also benefit local communities, as long as the infrastructure is not developed for the exclusive use of tourists (Allen et al. 1993). This tourist infrastructure affects the social and cultural life of the local communities, because their way of life would have been different if the infrastructure had not been established and shared.

For example, Maun, which is a rural area in Botswana, is a famous fast stop destination for tourists visiting the Okavango Delta and Moremi Game Reserve. Existing leisure facilities such as modern international airports, restaurants and shopping centers were originally intended for tourists, but are also shared by the local community (Long et al. 1990). Therefore, the social life and contemporary culture of the local residents are remarkably different from those in other large villages in Botswana.

Tourism Brings Negative Cultural And Social Impacts

Tourism promotes the transfer of knowledge to the host country. When experienced people from a developed country visit a developing country, opportunities are created to transfer knowledge from one community to another. Finally, developing countries can benefit.

Most tourist destinations around the world can improve their economy as a result of tourism activities. Among other things, tourism allows countries to earn foreign currency, which allows them to effectively trade with foreign states. In Kenya, the tourism sector employs a large number of people who work in world-class hotels and the transport sector, among others. Tourism also contributes a lot to the national income.

Some of the negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism on the host community include the decline of morality, disruption of family and gender relations, interference with value systems and religions, reduction of culture to a commodity, and staged authenticity. These are discussed as follows.

Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism

Exposure to the different values ​​of tourists and, in some cases, irresponsible tourist behavior, can lead to various moral and social problems, such as crime, prostitution, gambling, unhealthy eating and drinking, and drug abuse.

Figure 4 From Local Economic Development Policies And Tourism. An Approach To Sustainability And Culture

In many traditional societies, the father, who is the head of the family, has the responsibility of providing for his family. By providing employment, wages and disposable income to other members of the traditional family unit, which can be seen as a positive development, tourism can disrupt traditional family and gender relations, and create strife within the family.

The end result can be communities that do not function properly because the traditional division of labor has been taken over and undermined (McGehee & Andereck 2004).

An example of this disorder can be observed in the families of employees of safari companies who operate in the Okavango Delta and are separated from their families for months on end. It must be noted, however, that the disruption of family and gender relations, as is the case with the other impacts, cannot be attributed solely to tourism, as there are other industries, such as the mining industry, which also tend to have the same. effect.

Tourism can introduce different and sometimes opposing values ​​to established value systems and religion. On the one hand, host communities in developing countries sometimes see tourists from developed countries as too liberal and without morals, and find them insensitive to local norms and taboos. On the other hand, local populations often reject old ways and adopt the way of visitors too quickly. This happens mostly when the practices are from rich developed countries and the local population is in a less rich developing country (Murphy 1981, p. 56). While the adoption of foreign practices is not always bad, it can cause culture shock, lack of social cohesion and loss of cultural identity if it happens too quickly. No human culture should ever be sacrificed at the expense of another.

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This includes reducing the culture to another product with a price tag. In the context of the cultural impact of tourism, this affects the value, dignity, worth and sanctity of certain cultures. Cultural practices, although often preserved through touristic interest, can lose their real value and meaning.

An example includes the practice of sacred dance and rituals for the tourists to make money. Similarly, watching the divination of a traditional healer, sangoma or inyanga can reduce it from a spiritual exercise to a financial transaction or theatrical performance.

This is experienced when the host community stages or enacts certain authentic elements of its culture for the benefit of tourists, even though those cultural elements may no longer be part of their normal modern daily life. This means that authentic elements of culture are checked and become inauthentic because they are performed out of context.

Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism

Examples of authentic cultural elements that may be staged out of context for tourists include traditional dances, certain rituals or practices, the wearing of traditional clothing purely for the benefit of tourists, and the re-enactment of long-gone or ancient ways of life .

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In all of the above, while these elements may be an authentic representation of how the hosts used to live, they may not be a true reflection of how they live today, and thus the representation is reduced to a mere staging of something.

Think, for example, of an authentic traditional dance performance by singers in animal skins at the Market Theater in Johannesburg. The problem with this performance is that it may not be a true reflection of the contemporary and lively culture of the place, and may even reinforce the perception of tourists that, in this particular case, Africans are still primitive.

In general, the social cultural impact of tourism is not the same throughout the world, and a number of factors influence the impact of tourism on each community.

Usually, most tourist-host interactions occur in the tourist destination region when tourists buy goods and services from local people, when tourists and local residents use the same facilities such as beaches, shops, restaurants and other facilities and infrastructure, or when they purposefully meet to exchange ideas and information.

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The type of interaction between tourists and guests affects the relationship and attitudes they have towards each other, and this affects the social cultural impact of tourism (Wang & Pfister 2008).

The tourist-host relationship and thus the socio-cultural impact of tourism is influenced by the differences between tourists and hosts, the type of contact between tourists and hosts, the importance of tourism in a community, and community tolerance thresholds, which depend on how willing a The community should bear the inflow of tourists and their influence. These are discussed as follows.

The differences between tourists and hosts that can affect the socio-cultural impact of tourism are their basic values ​​and logic systems, religious beliefs, traditions, customs, lifestyles, behavior patterns, dress codes, sense of time budgeting, and attitudes towards strangers .

Positive And Negative Social Impacts Of Tourism

The values ​​and logic systems of a host community and tourists determine what they value and how they value it. If the hosts and the tourists have different values ​​and logic systems, it can cause attraction or resentment when there is an interaction.

Positive & Negative Impacts Of Tourism

When tourists and hosts belonging to different religions come into contact with each other, there are likely to be shocks and new discoveries. For example, the public display of affection between male and female Christian tourists may shock many Muslims in the Middle East.

Contact between tourists and hosts whose traditions are different could cause a greater impact. For example, the scantily clad tourist can have a long-term effect on the dress code of many rural communities in Africa. The reaction might be to copy them or direct them not to adhere to local norms and social codes. Variations in traditional practices can be found even among people of the same race and language.

The similarity of the customs between the host and the guests reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For example, tourists from Cape Town visiting Durban will find many common similarities to their guests and may not

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