Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function – Your lungs are on each side of your heart, inside your ribcage. They are the main organs of the respiratory system. The right lung is divided into three lobes (sections), and the left lung is divided into two lobes. Your left lung is slightly smaller than your right lung, because your heart takes up a little space on the left side. When you inhale, air enters your airways and travels down into the air sacs, or alveoli, in your lungs. Gas exchange takes place here.

Animation passes through the lung structures. Medical Animation Copyright © 2022 Nucleus Medical Media Inc. All rights reserved.

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

The circulatory system, which consists of the heart and blood vessels, supports the respiratory system by bringing blood to and from the lungs. The circulatory system helps deliver nutrients and oxygen from the lungs to tissues and organs throughout the body. It also helps remove carbon dioxide and waste products. Other body systems that work with the respiratory system include the nervous system, the lymphatic system, and the immune system.

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The image shows a magnified view of the airways and lungs, as well as the trachea; bronchi or bronchi; and bronchioles. The image also shows a close-up view of gas exchange in the alveoli. The blue arrows show the oxygen from the inhaled air entering the bloodstream, and the green arrows show the carbon dioxide from your body leaving the bloodstream.

The airways are tubes that carry oxygen-rich air to the alveoli in your lungs. They also carry the waste gas carbon dioxide from your lungs. The respiratory tract includes these parts of the body:

Find out what happens in your lungs when you inhale and exhale. Medical Animation Copyright © 2022 Nucleus Medical Media Inc. All rights reserved.

Air first enters your body through your nose or mouth, which moistens and warms the air because cold, dry air can irritate your lungs. The air then travels past your voice box and down your windpipe. Rings of tough tissue, called cartilage, serve as supports that keep the bronchial tubes open.

Alveoli: Anatomy, Function And Clinical Points

Inside your lungs, the bronchial tubes branch into thousands of smaller tubes called bronchioles. Bronchioles end in clusters of tiny air sacs called alveoli.

Your lungs have about 150 million alveoli. Normally, your alveoli are elastic, meaning their size and shape can change easily. Alveoli can expand and contract easily because their insides are lined with a substance called surfactant. Surfactant reduces the work required for breathing by helping the lungs to inflate more easily when you inhale. It also prevents the lungs from collapsing when you exhale.

Each of these alveoli is made up of a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Capillaries connect to the network of arteries and veins that move blood through your body.

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

The pulmonary artery and its branches deliver blood to the capillaries surrounding the alveoli. This blood is rich in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen.

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Carbon dioxide moves from the blood into the air inside the alveoli. At the same time, oxygen passes from the air into the blood in the capillaries.

The main image shows the location of the lungs, pleura and diaphragm. The inset image shows a closer view of the two layers of the pleura and the pleural space.

The lungs are surrounded by the pleura, a membrane with two layers. The space between these two layers is called the pleural cavity. A slippery fluid called pleural fluid acts as a lubricant to reduce friction during breathing. Pulmonary circulation is part of the circulatory system of all vertebrates. The circuit begins with deoxygenated blood returning from the body to the right atrium of the heart where it is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood is oxygenated and returned to the left atrium to complete the circuit.

The second division of the circulatory system is the systemic circulation, which begins by receiving oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation into the left atrium. From the atrium, oxygenated blood exits into the left ventricle, from where it is pumped to the rest of the body, returning as deoxygenated blood back to the pulmonary circulation.

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A separate circulatory circuit known as the bronchial circulation supplies oxygenated blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lungs.

High-resolution 3D computed tomography of the chest. The anterior thoracic wall, airways, and pulmonary vessels anterior to the lung roots were digitally removed to visualize different levels of pulmonary circulation.

Image showing the main pulmonary artery running ventral to the root of the aorta and trachea. The right pulmonary artery passes dorsally to the ascending aorta, while the left pulmonary artery passes ventrally to the descending aorta.

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

From the right atrium, blood is pumped through the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve) into the right ventricle. Blood is pumped from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.

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Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is picked up during breathing.

Oxygenated blood leaves the lungs through the pulmonary veins, which return it to the left side of the heart, thus completing the pulmonary cycle.

This blood moves the left atrium, which pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.

Blood is distributed throughout the body through the systemic circulation before returning to the pulmonary circulation.

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From the right ventricle, blood is pumped through the semilunar pulmonary valve into the left and right main pulmonary arteries (one for each lung), which branch into smaller pulmonary arteries that spread throughout the lungs.

The fetal lungs are collapsed, and blood passes from the right atrium directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale (open conduit between the paired atria) or through the ductus arteriosus (shunt between the pulmonary artery and the aorta).

When the lungs expand at birth, pulmonary pressure drops and blood is drawn from the right atrium into the right ventricle and through the pulmonary circuit. Over several months, the foramen ovale closes, leaving a shallow depression known as the fossa ovalis.

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

The discovery of the pulmonary circulation is attributed to many scientists, and the credit is distributed in different proportions from different sources. In much of the modern medical literature, the discovery is attributed to the great physician William Harvey (1578 – 1657 AD) based on the comprehensive completeness and correctness of his model, despite its relative accuracy.

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Other sources mention the Greek philosopher Hippocrates (460-370 BCE), the Spanish physician Michael Servetus (c. 1509-1553 CE), the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288 CE), and the Syrian physician Qusta ibn Luqa. .

Several figures such as Hippocrates and al-Nafis are given credit for accurately predicting or developing specific elements of the modern model of pulmonary circulation: Hippocrates

Because he was the first to describe the pulmonary circulation as a discrete system that can be separated from the systemic circulation as a whole and al-Nafis

For the great strides in understanding those before him and towards a rigorous model. There is a great deal of subjectivity involved in deciding at what point a complex system is “discovered,” since it is usually elucidated in pieces, so that the first description, the most complete or accurate description, and the most significant leaps forward in understanding are all considered acts of discovery of varying significance.

Airways And Lungs

Primitive descriptions of the cardiovascular system are found in several ancient cultures. The earliest known description of the role of air in circulation was produced in Egypt in 3500 BC. At that time, the Egyptians believed that the heart was the origin of many channels that interconnected different parts of the body and transported air – as well as urine, blood and soul – between them.

The Edwin Smith Papyrus (1700 BCE), named after the American Egyptologist Edwin Smith (1822–1906 CE) who purchased the scroll in 1862, provided evidence that the Egyptians believed that the heartbeat created a pulse that carried the above substances through the body .

Another scroll, the Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE), also emphasized the importance of the heart and its connection to blood vessels throughout the body and described methods for detecting heart disease through pulse abnormalities. Although they had knowledge of the heartbeat, blood vessels and pulse, the Egyptians attributed the movement of substances through the vessels to the air residing in those channels, not to the pressure of the heart.

Parts Of The Lungs And Its Function

The Egyptians knew that air played an important role in circulation, but they still had no concept of the role of the lungs.

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The next addition to the historical understanding of pulmonary circulation came with the ancient Greeks. The physician Alcmaeon (520 – 450 BC) proposed that the brain, not the heart, was the connection point for all blood vessels in the body. He believed that the function of these vessels was to bring “spirit” (“pneuma”) and air to the brain.

Empedocles (492 – 432 BC), a philosopher, proposed a series of tubes, impermeable to blood but continuous with

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