Organ System Of The Body And Their Function – Billy Ray Cyrus’ song “Achy Breaky Heart” has lyrics like: Heartache, heartbreak…it’s all about love. Have you ever wondered why the heart is associated with love? The heart was once thought to be the center of all thought processes as well as the seat of all emotions. This notion may have derived from very early anatomical dissections which revealed that many nerves could be traced to the region of the heart. The fact that the heart can begin to beat when one is excited or otherwise emotionally agitated may have also contributed to this idea. In fact, the heart is not the organ that controls thoughts or emotions. The organ that controls these functions is the brain. In this concept, you will be introduced to the heart, brain and other major organs of the human body.
An organ is a collection of tissues united into a structural unit to serve a common function. Organs exist in most multicellular organisms, including not only humans and other animals, but also plants. In unicellular organisms such as bacteria, the functional equivalent of an organ is an organelle.
Organ System Of The Body And Their Function
Although organs are made up of many types of tissue, many organs are made up of core tissue that is related to the organ’s main function and other tissues that play supporting roles. The primary tissue may be unique to that specific organ. For example, the main tissue of the heart is cardiac muscle, which performs the heart’s main function of pumping blood and is found only in the heart. The heart also includes the nerve and connective tissue needed to perform its primary function. For example, nervous tissue controls the heartbeat, and connective tissue makes up the heart valves that keep blood flowing in only one direction through the heart.
Presentation Topic 2 Organs And Organ Systems
The human body contains five organs that are considered vital for survival. They are the heart, brain, kidneys, liver and lungs. The locations of these five organs and several other internal organs are shown in Figure (PageIndex). If any of the five vital organs stop functioning, the death of the organism is inevitable without medical intervention.
Figure (PageIndex): Use this shadow diagram of the human anatomy to locate the five organs described above: the heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs. Do you know the functions of any of the other organs in the diagram?
Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Figure (PageIndex) and Figure (PageIndex) show 11 human organ systems, including separate diagrams for the male and female reproductive systems. Some of the organs and functions of the organ systems are identified in the figure. Each system is also described in more detail in the text that follows. Most of these human organ systems are also the subject of separate chapters in this book.
The organs of the integral system include the skin, hair and nails. The skin is the largest organ in the body. It encloses and protects the body and is the site of many sensory receptors. The skin is the body’s first line of defense against pathogens, and it also helps regulate body temperature and eliminate waste in sweat.
Organs And Structures Of The Respiratory System
The skeletal system consists of bones, joints, teeth. The bones of the skeletal system are connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The functions of the skeletal system include supporting the body and giving it shape. Along with the muscular system, the skeletal system enables the body to move. The bones of the skeletal system also protect internal organs, store calcium, and produce red and white blood cells.
The muscular system consists of three different types of muscles, including skeletal muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons and allow voluntary body movement. Smooth muscle tissue controls the involuntary movements of internal organs, such as the organs of the digestive system, allowing food to move through the system. Smooth muscle in blood vessels allows vasoconstriction and dilation of blood vessels and thus helps regulate body temperature. The heart muscle tissue controls the involuntary beating of the heart, allowing it to pump blood through the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system.
The nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system, and the nerves that run through the rest of the body, which make up the peripheral nervous system. The nervous system controls both voluntary and involuntary responses of the human organism and also detects and processes sensory information.
The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones into the blood, which carry the hormones throughout the body. Endocrine hormones are chemical messengers that control many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The main gland of the endocrine system is the pituitary gland, which produces hormones that control other endocrine glands. Some of the other endocrine glands include the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands.
Human Reproductive System
The cardiovascular system (also called the circulatory system) includes the heart, blood, and three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart pumps blood, which travels through blood vessels. The main function of the cardiovascular system is transport. Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive system are transported to cells throughout the body. Carbon dioxide and other waste materials are taken up by cells and transported to organs such as the lungs and kidneys to be eliminated from the body. The cardiovascular system also equalizes body temperature and transports endocrine hormones to body cells where they are needed.
The urinary system includes the pair of kidneys, which filter excess water and a waste called urea from the blood and form urine. Two tubes called ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, which stores the urine until it is excreted from the body through another tube called the urethra. The kidneys also produce an enzyme called renin and a number of hormones. These substances help regulate blood pressure, the production of red blood cells and the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
Other organs and structures of the respiratory system include the nasal passages, the lungs, and a long tube called the trachea, which carries air between the nasal passages and the lungs. The main function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Gases are exchanged between the lungs and blood through the walls of capillaries that line the small air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs.
The lymphatic system is sometimes considered to be part of the immune system. It consists of a network of lymphatic vessels and channels that collect excess fluid (called lymph) from the extracellular spaces in the tissues and transport the fluid into the bloodstream. The lymphatic system also includes many small collections of tissues, called lymph nodes, and an organ called the spleen, both of which remove pathogens and cellular debris from the lymph or blood. In addition, the thymus gland in the lymphatic system produces several types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that fight infection.
The Organization And Structure Of The Human Body
The digestive system consists of several major organs—including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines—that form a long tube called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Food moves through this tract where it is digested, its nutrients absorbed, and its waste products excreted. The digestive system also includes accessory organs (such as the pancreas and liver) that produce enzymes and other substances necessary for digestion, but through which food does not actually pass.
The reproductive system is the only body system that varies substantially between individuals. There are a number of logical sexes, but most books divide them into male and female. We will discuss the logic of sex in detail in the chapters on reproduction and development.
Organ transplantation has been performed by surgeons for more than six decades, and you’ve no doubt heard of people receiving heart, lung, and kidney transplants. However, you may never have heard of penile transplant. The first penis transplant in the US was performed in May 2016 at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The 15-hour procedure involved a team of more than 50 doctors, surgeons and nurses. The patient was a 64-year-old man who had lost his penis to cancer in 2012. The surgical highlight involved grafting the microscopic blood vessels and nerves of the donor organ to those of the recipient. As with most transplant patients, this patient will need to take immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of his life to prevent his immune system from rejecting the organ. The transplant team said their success with this transplant “holds promise for patients with devastating genitourinary injuries and diseases.” They also hope that their experiences will be useful for gender reassignment surgery.
Professor Anthony Atala is working to answer an important question: Can we grow new replacement organs instead of transplanting organs from other people? In his state-of-the-art lab, he and his collaborators are actually growing human organs, including blood vessels, bladders and kidneys. Watch the fascinating TED talk below to see how they’re doing it. As we have learned, our bodies are complex systems made up of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. In order for life to work
Organization Of The Human Body
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