Importance Of Zinc In The Human Body – Zinc (Zn) is one of the most abundant heavy metals in the Earth’s crust and is reported to be an essential trace metal required for the growth of living things, it is a cofactor of key proteins and it mediates the regulation of a number of immunomodulators. functions. However, its essence is also paralleled by its toxicity caused by various anthropogenic sources, constant exposure to polluted areas and other natural phenomena. The bioavailability of Zn is associated with various vegetables, beef and dairy products being good sources of Zn for safe human consumption. However, conditions of Zn toxicity can also occur with overdose of Zn supplements, which is increasing at an alarming rate due to lack of awareness. Although Zn toxicity in humans is a treatable and non-life-threatening condition, several symptoms interfere with human activity and lifestyle, including fever, difficulty breathing, nausea, chest pain, and cough. In the environment, Zn is generally found in soil and water bodies, where it is introduced by weathering and, accordingly, by the release of industrial waste. Excessive levels of Zn in these sources can alter soil and water microbial diversity and thus affect the bioavailability and absorption of other metals. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. Several Gram-positive and negative species such as Zn bioremediation. This review aims to provide an overview of Zn and its properties, utilization, bioavailability, toxicity, as well as the main mechanisms involved in its bioremediation from contaminated soil and wastewater.

The increase in anthropogenic activities has exacerbated the problem of heavy metal pollution, which are non-biodegradable pollutants and can be harmful to living organisms at high levels because they remain undetected in the environment (Witkowska et al., 2021). ). Zinc (Zn) is one of the most common transition elements in the earth’s crust and is also reported to be an essential trace element for all living organisms (Roohani et al., 2013; Jarosz et al., 2017; Lee, 2018). It is an important component of various proteins, acting as a cofactor or coenzyme of more than 300 enzymes (Rahman and Karim, 2018) and various enzymes, proteins, DNA and DNA-binding proteins, immunity, as well as cellular metabolism. It also helps to suppress the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which emphasize protein stability and the function of antioxidant enzymes (Narayanan et al., 2020). It exists in nature as a divalent cation (Zn

Importance Of Zinc In The Human Body

Importance Of Zinc In The Human Body

). Zn was first reported to be essential for the growth of microorganisms in 1869 (Raulin, 1869), much earlier than that of plants and animals (Todd et al., 1933; Prasad et al., 1963). It was not until the 1960s that Zn was identified as essential for humans, before which its deficiency was not known to cause harmful effects on human health (Prasad, 2017). In humans, Zn plays an essential role in the production of hormones and their receptors (Chasapis et al., 2012; Roohani et al., 2013). It is reported that the total concentration of Zn in the human body is about 2-3 gm, more than 80% of which is distributed in bones and muscles. During transport in the body, enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells carry the largest amount of Zn in the bloodstream (Vallee and Falchuk, 1993). However, most of the transported Zn is bound to albumin with an estimated plasma concentration of 12–16 μ m ( Rink and Gabriel, 2000 ). In addition, Zn regulation in the human body is closely related to normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation levels (Haase and Rink, 2014a) and the production of cytokines and antibodies, thus playing an important role in the homeostasis of innate and toxicosis. adaptive immune systems (Haase and Rink, 2014b; Weyh et al., 2022). Zn supplementation has also been suggested to reduce viral activity as well as ameliorate tissue damage and inflammation in many viral infections, including COVID-19 (Asl et al., 2021; Rodelo et al., 2022). Zn consumption in humans depends on dietary intake, which usually varies with age and sex. According to the German Nutrition Society, 1.5 mg/day is recommended for infants (0-4 months), 11 and 14 mg/day for adolescent boys and girls (15-19 years), and adult boys and girls. (aged 19 or older), median dietary intakes are recommended by the US Food and Nutrition Board to be 11–16 and 7–10 mg/day (varies by phytate intake), respectively (Otten et al., 2006; Rodelo et al. , 2022). Thus, Zn deficiency may be an important factor in creating nutritional imbalances and may adversely affect human health, leading to certain medical diseases, including immune dysregulation, impaired immunity, increased susceptibility to infection, lymphopenia, common cold, epilepsy, acne, Wilson’s disease. disease and neurological diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease (Irving et al., 2003; Walker and Black, 2004; Prasad, 2013). Zn intake and its excess are also reported to be associated with modulation of gastrointestinal flora and immune systems (Skalny et al., 2021). In this regard, it should also be noted that excessive intake of this element can cause negative effects such as disturbances in the levels of other elements, especially copper, which can subsequently result in copper deficiency anemia, a decrease in copper-dependent enzymes. and impaired cholesterol metabolism (Terrin et al., 2020; Brzóska et al., 2021).

Everything You Need To Know About Zinc

There are various reports in the literature demonstrating the negative effects of excessive micronutrient exposure, including Zn exposure, which disrupts the homeostasis of various biological systems (Hynninen et al., 2010; Potocki et al., 2012). At higher concentrations, Zn can cause toxicity in cells, often resulting in disruption of key biological functions caused by blocking of protein thiols through mismetalation with other metals (Marchetti, 2013; Chandrangsu et al., 2017). The large amount of Zn emissions into the environment due to natural and anthropogenic sources enabled its unhindered entry into food chains and resulted in biomagnification in living organisms. Bioremediation is a feasible and efficient way to remove these toxic amounts from contaminated soil and wastewater sources, thus offering a new perspective for the use of heavy metal-resistant bacteria through sustainable development (Sharma et al., 2021).

The purpose of this review is to compile and present the chemical and physical properties, uses, toxicity effects of Zn, and to summarize and highlight the potential resistance mechanism enabling bacteria as promising agents for heavy metal bioremediation. Like Zn.

Zinc is represented by the symbol “Zn” with atomic number and weight of 30 and 65.38 gm respectively. It was first discovered and recognized as a metal in 1746 by the German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2022). It belongs to group XII (formerly known as II-B) of the periodic table (Period number 4, element group number 12, block “d”; Jensen, 2003) and is a brittle, lustrous, blue-white metal. solid at room temperature. It becomes malleable and malleable when heated above 110°C, and is generally considered a moderately reactive metal in terms of its reactivity with oxygen and other metals (Table 1; Wuana and Okieimen, 2011). It acts as a strong reducing agent and acts as a Lewis acid in hydrolytic reactions, a catalyst of reactions, and thereby associates with various metalloenzymes, DNA binding and regulatory proteins, as well as transcription factors (Cerasi et al., 2013). Zn occurs naturally as the mineral sphalerite (ZnS) and has five stable isotopes (

Zn generally does not behave like a typical metal because it does not have an 8-electron octet, but has an 18-electron shell when it loses its two outermost electrons, making it less reactive than other metals. However, since it undergoes neither oxidation nor reduction, it forms a stable metal ion in biological matrices where the redox potential is in constant flux (Graf, 1997). It has a 2+ oxidation state and easily forms compounds with ammonia, cyanide and halide ions. Compared to the metal itself, Zn powder is reported to be more reactive and pyrophoric due to its large surface area. Selective compounds of Zn (chloride and sulfate) are soluble in water, while other compounds (sulfide, carbonate, phosphate, oxide) are observed to be insoluble or slightly soluble in water (Habashi, 2013). It is capable of displacing all metals below its position in the electrochemical series and can also displace gold from cyanide solution, the latter being a large-scale industrial process (Robinson and Pohl, 2013). The surface of the metal is prone to rapid corrosion and eventually forms an encapsulating layer of Zn carbonate after reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide (Holleman et al., 1985), although it can be removed by corroding with strong acids (HCl, H).

The Best Form Of Zinc To Take For Your Thyroid

Adequate consumption and intake

Importance of magnesium in the human body, the importance of zinc, importance of iodine in the human body, importance of proteins in the human body, importance of zinc in body, importance of electrolytes in the human body, importance of zinc in the body, zinc importance in human body, zinc in the human body, importance of water in the human body, function of zinc in the human body, importance of carbon in the human body