How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body

How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body – Before you begin to study the different structures and functions of the human body, it is useful to consider its basic architecture; that is, how its smallest parts are assembled into larger structures. It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of basic levels of organization that increase in complexity: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms and biosphere (

Figure 1. The organization of the body is often discussed in terms of six specific levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest chemical building blocks to a unique human organism.

How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body

How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body

To study the chemical level of organization, scientists consider the simplest building blocks of matter: subatomic particles, atoms and molecules. All matter in the universe consists of one or more unique pure substances called elements, familiar examples of which are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium and iron. The smallest unit of any of these pure substances (elements) is an atom. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles such as the proton, the electron and the neutron. Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule, such as the water molecules, proteins, and sugars found in living things. Molecules are the chemical building blocks of all body structures.

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A cell is the smallest unit of a living organism that functions independently. Even bacteria, which are tiny, independent living organisms, have a cellular structure. All bacteria are single celled. All living structures of human anatomy are composed of cells, and almost all functions of human physiology are performed in cells or are initiated by cells.

A human cell usually consists of flexible membranes that enclose cytoplasm, a water-based cellular fluid and a variety of small functional units called organelles. In humans, as in all organisms, cells carry out all the functions of life. A tissue is a group of many similar cells (though sometimes containing a few related types) that work together to perform a specific function. An organ is an anatomically distinct structure of the body that contains two or more types of tissue. Each organ performs one or more specific physiological functions. An organ system is a group of organs that work together to carry out major functions or meet the physiological needs of the body.

Shows some of the organ systems of the body that we will consider during this semester. Many organs have functions that are an integral part of more than one organ system.

The organism level is the highest level of organization considered in anatomy/physiology. An organism is a living being that has a cellular structure and is able to carry out all the physiological functions necessary for life independently. In multicellular organisms, including humans, all the cells, tissues, organs and organ systems of the body work together to maintain the life and health of the organism.

Solution: General And Unique Characteristics Of Different Organ Systems In Representative Animals 1

The life processes of the human body are carried out at several levels of structural organization. These include the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism level. Higher levels of organization are built from lower levels. Thus, molecules combine to form cells, cells combine to form tissues, tissues combine to form organs, organs combine to form organ systems, and organ systems combine to form organisms.

A living being that has a cellular structure and can independently carry out all the physiological functions necessary for life

Human Biology Copyright © Sarah Malmquist and Kristina Prescott It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. These are muscular system, digestive system, integumentary system, skeletal system, circulatory system, respiratory system, lymphatic system, endocrine system, excretory system and reproductive system. All these systems contain their specific organs. However, these systems are somehow connected to each other.

How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body

The muscular system, in vertebrates, is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles, such as cardiac muscle and muscles in stomach walls, can be completely autonomous. And others like, skeletal muscles are under conscious control.

Human Body Systems

Muscles run throughout the human body. Each muscle has a specific name according to its location or function. All these muscles work and make the human body function normally. For example, when you want to play a flute you have to pucker your lips, you can do that with the help of Orbicularis oris, a muscle around the lips.

The food we eat is the body’s source of fuel. Nutrients in food provide the body’s cells with the energy they need to function. Before food can be used it must be broken down into small pieces so that the body can absorb and use it. In humans, proteins need to be broken down into amino acids, starches into sugars, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The whole process of digestion is aided by chemical and nervous coordination.

Acting as a barrier, protecting the internals of the body, controlling body temperature and also eliminating waste (eg sweat).

The outer layer of the skin ie. epidermis is responsible for retaining water in the body and keeping out other harmful chemicals and pathogens.

Solved In This Course You Will Study The Human Body By

And the layer below the epidermis ie dermis performs major functions and also nourishes the epidermis. It contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscles, glands and lymphatic tissue. It plays a major role in thermoregulation.

The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies beneath the dermis. Its purpose is to connect the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supply it with blood vessels and nerves.

The muscular and skeletal system work together to provide movement. In addition, a skeletal system provides a correct shape to our body. Without this system, the human body can never be as organized as it is.

How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body

The circulatory system is extremely important to sustain life. Its proper functioning is responsible for supplying oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as removing carbon dioxide, waste products, maintaining the optimal pH, and the mobility of elements, proteins and cells, the lymphatic system.

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(except pulmonary veins) which carry the oxygen-poor blood from various organs and deliver it to the heart. The heart oxygenates that blood. Then

(except pulmonary arteries) supply the oxygenated blood to the various organs of the body. So it means that blood is traveling from different chambers of the heart all the time. The muscular system is also part of this circulation if it is blood. The autonomic cardiac muscles relax and contract to help the heart pump blood.

The respiratory tract is the airway that starts from the nasal cavity and ends in smaller alveoli in the lungs. Its major role in breathing is undoubtedly an inevitable process. In addition, the respiratory system also regulates blood

Nervous system is concerned with nervous coordination. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). CNS represents most of the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Along with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), it has a fundamental role in controlling behavior.

Body Fluids And Fluid Compartments

The nervous system communicates with a number of other body systems. For example: Even when we haven’t started eating, our brain starts telling our digestive organs ie. pancreas and the stomach through nerves for the expected entry of food. And pancreas stimulated by neural signals produces approx

The lymphatic system helps to protect the body from foreign invaders. It destroys the bacteria and viruses through lymphocyte and macrophages present within lymph nodes. Lymphatic system is involved in the absorption of fat globules released by interstitial cells and the products of fat digestion are absorbed.

Spleen filters the blood. It destroys old red blood cells and foreign blood particles through its lymphocytes and macrophages.

How Many Organ Systems Are There In The Human Body

Endocrine glands/tissues. These glands secrete a hormone that is released into the bloodstream. From blood these are transported to the target tissues where they carry out their specific work. For example: When the blood sugar level drops then the pancreas (endocrine gland) secretes glucagon which works to increase blood glucose.

Tissues And Organs

Excretion is the process of removing, from an organism, waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. The most prominent organs of this system are the kidneys. Kidneys with the help of their functional units ie nephrons, maintain an appropriate fluid volume by regulating the amount of water excreted in the urine, regulating the concentrations of various electrolytes in body fluids, maintaining normal

From the blood and maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis) for optimal cell and tissue metabolism. They do this by separating urea, mineral salts, toxins, and other waste products from the blood. They also do the work of saving water, salts and electrolytes. At least one kidney must work properly to sustain life.

All living things reproduce. This is something that sets the living apart from the non-living. Although the reproductive system is essential to the survival of a species, it is not as essential to the survival of an individual.

As in the case of sexual reproduction, the specific characteristics are inherited from parents to their offspring. Therefore, in this case, reproduction is important in preserving certain genetic makeups. Although if we are talking about asexual reproduction then it is only about producing a new individual. Because there is no exchange of genetic materials in asexual reproduction. As we have learned our bodies are complex systems made up of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. For life to function

What Are The Main Functions Of Each Of The Following Organ Systems: (1) Respiratory, (2) Urinary, And (3) Endocrine? (consult Figure 39 4 For Help.)

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