How Many Different Types Of Cancers Are There

How Many Different Types Of Cancers Are There – Cancer is a disease of the genome. It occurs when genes involved in promoting or suppressing cell growth stop working normally, and mutations that disrupt the signals are sustained. There are more than 100 types of cancer, most of which depend on their primary tissue—breast; colon or brain; For example, they derive their names and current treatment based on their original tissue. But that’s about to change thanks to advances in DNA sequencing and analysis.

Using data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas, NIH-funded researchers recently compared genetic fingerprints from nearly 3,300 patients with 12 types of cancer: acute myeloid leukemia, bladder, brain (glioblastoma multiforme), breast; colon, endometrial head and neck; kidney lung (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma); Uterine and rectal tract. The researchers found that cancers can show similar features at the DNA level, even when they originate in different tissues, but largely confirm what smaller studies have shown.

How Many Different Types Of Cancers Are There

How Many Different Types Of Cancers Are There

In fact, The new analysis, published in the journal Nature [1] , lists 127 significantly altered genes shared by subgroups of samples across 12 cancer types. Many of these mutated genes are notorious culprits that can initiate the uncontrolled growth of cancer or drive its progression. But others are new suspects on the cancer list. These include genes that regulate the activity of other genes; These include genes that control the shedding of proteins and spool-like proteins that organize the coiling of chromosomes around DNA.

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Most exciting here is the potential to identify key genetic changes in some tumors regardless of where they arise in the body. That information is important in our efforts to develop specific ways to help cancer patients, known as personalized medicine or precision medicine. for example, If a patient’s tumor has a genetic fingerprint that indicates its likelihood of spreading to other parts of the body. or if it metastasizes Doctors may recommend a more aggressive treatment strategy than they would for someone with a different tumor profile.

Genetic information can also help determine whether a drug originally approved for use in one type of cancer may be useful in treating other types. for example, If a drug works for colon cancer; It may also work for lung cancer with a similar genetic fingerprint.

In addition to allowing doctors to use today’s cancer treatments in a more precise way, Genome-based research lays the foundation for tomorrow’s cancer therapies. The wealth of genetic information generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas is accelerating efforts to identify key cellular pathways involved in cancer and determine key targets for therapeutic development.

This study, along with several others, is published in this month’s issue of Nature Genetics [2–5]. The NIH-sponsored “Pan-Cancer Project” is just a few of roughly 20 papers expected to be published in the coming months. But based on these exciting early findings, we look forward to the not-too-distant future when cancer patients will receive treatments based on the genetic makeup of their tumors. A traditional chemotherapy approach.

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[1] Mutational landscape and significance in 12 major cancer types. Kandoth C. McLellan MD; Vandin F. Ye K, Niu B. Lu C, Xie M, Zhang Q, McMichael JF; Wyczalkowski MA; Leiserson MD; Miller CA; Welch JS; Walter MJ. Wendl MC; Ley TJ; Wilson RK, Raphael BJ, Ding L. Nature. 2013 Oct 17;502(7471):333-9.

[2] The emerging landscape of carcinogenesis across human cancers. Ciriello G. Miller ML; Aksoy BA, Senbaaoglu Y, Schultz N, Sander C. Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1127-1133.

[3] Pan cancer somatic copy number patterns. Zack T.I. Schumacher SE; Carter SL; Cherniack AD; Saksena G. Tabak B. Lawrence MS. Zhang CZ; Wala J. Mermel CH; Sougnez C. Gabriel SB; Hernandez B. Shen H, Laird PW; Getz G. Meyerson M, Beroukhim R. Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1134-1140.

How Many Different Types Of Cancers Are There

[4] Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer Analysis Project. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network; Genome Characterization Center; Chang K et al Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1113-20.

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[5] Conducting a transparent and collaborative computational analysis of 12 tumor types within The Cancer Genome Atlas. Omberg L; Ellrott K, Yuan Y, Kandoth C. Wong C, Kellen MR; Friend SH Stuart J. Liang H, Margolin AA. Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1121-6.

Tags: acute myeloid leukemia adenocarcinoma; Bladder cancer breast cancer Cancer chemotherapy; colon cancer DNA sequencing; ovarian cancer genetic changes; genome, genetic fingerprint; glioblastoma multiforme; head and neck cancer; kidney cancer National Institutes of Health NIH, ovarian cancer Pan-Cancer Project; personalized medicine; specific medicine; rectal cancer squamous cell carcinoma; TCGA The Cancer Genome Atlas; therapeutic development; treatment TumoWe start from us but are made up of around 30 trillion cells. A cell This cell replicates itself and each copy replicates itself and repeats itself. These cells eventually become complete human beings.

Early cells called stem cells do not differentiate. This means they have the potential to become any type of cell, but are not specialized. Once a certain number of cells have been formed, The new cells differentiate and become unique cells with a specific purpose.

There are about 200 types of cells, each with a special role in the body. They come in different sizes and shapes and even have different lifespans.

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Cell division is an ongoing process throughout our lives, as cells need to be replaced when they die or are damaged. Every day, the human body creates about 300 billion new cells. More than half of these are red blood cells that last only about 120 days and are constantly being replaced. This is a completely normal process.

With two important exceptions; When healthy cells divide, They are preprogrammed to become a specific type of cell and have controls over whether they can replicate themselves. They also have a programmed age limit and they die naturally and are replaced.

A tumor occurs when there is an error in the replication process and the cell replicates incorrectly. The worst mistake is that they keep replicating indefinitely. In addition, Because they are often unspecialized or undifferentiated, they serve no purpose and do not go through normal cell life cycles.

How Many Different Types Of Cancers Are There

As the cells continue to divide, they can eventually form lumps or masses that affect the part of the body where they reside. Then this body part may not function properly or may not function at all.

Different Cancers Can Share Genetic Signatures

Benign tumors are non-cancerous and do not spread beyond their original boundaries. This means they do not affect other tissues. For this reason, They are not dangerous. However, Some benign tumors change and become malignant or cancerous. These tumors can invade the surrounding tissues and cause more damage to the body. Cancer cells can invade nearby healthy cells to form blood vessels that bring nutrients and oxygen to the tumor and remove waste products that help it grow.

If the cancer cells are located in one area, it is called cancerous cells. Most cancers start this way and form lumps that can be removed surgically. Unfortunately, Cancer calls are not always isolated; Cells can break away from the mass and travel to other parts of the body where new cancers develop. This process is called metastasis.

Other cancers occur in other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes and blood system. These are the body’s highways, and as cells move throughout the body, these cancers spread quickly and easily, rather than being localized. When cells break off from solid tumors and enter the blood or lymphatic systems, they can spread throughout the body.

Due to the increasing number of new cells every day, errors often occur. Ordinarily, When a cell is damaged or defective; It is mistakenly recognized by the immune system and destroyed. But sometimes the mistakes or mutations that cause cell cancer can grow without restraint and spread throughout the body because the immune system can’t recognize them. At that point, those cells can become cancerous.

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Cancer can occur in almost any type of cell; Cancer is not a single disease but a group of over 100 different diseases because each one is separate and unique. Because of this, Medical professionals will treat different cancers differently and have different success rates.

Different types of cancer also grow at different rates. Some cancers are slow-growing, so doctors may decide to treat them; Other cancers grow so quickly or travel to many parts of the body that it is impossible to remove or destroy them all. That’s why it’s important to be aware of changes in your body, so if you develop cancer cells, they can be detected early, making treatment easier and more effective.

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