High White Blood Cell Count And Ketones In Urine – Urinalysis is part of a routine prenatal examination to diagnose any medical conditions during pregnancy, including kidney infections, preeclampsia, and XA pregnancy disorders which are characterized by high blood pressure, water retention, and protein content in the urine. , and gestational diabetes i XA, a condition characterized by increased blood sugar levels due to hormonal and physical changes during pregnancy. . It also detects an increase in leukocytes in the urine during pregnancy, which may indicate the presence of infection or inflammation of the genitourinary tract or urinary tract. You may also need urinary tract tests to check the function of the maternal organs (1) (2).
Read on to find out the causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment management, and preventive measures for leukocytes or white blood cells (WBC) in urine during pregnancy.
- 1 High White Blood Cell Count And Ketones In Urine
- 2 Prolonged Thrombocytopenia In A Case Of Mis C In A Vaccinated Child
High White Blood Cell Count And Ketones In Urine
Leukocytes or white blood cells are part of your immune system and include granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). Together, these white blood cells help the body fight infections and other diseases.
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In general, measuring the number of leukocytes is part of a complete blood cell count (CBC) test (3). However, if a urinary tract infection (UTI) or inflammation is suspected during routine prenatal testing, your healthcare provider may suggest a urine test to detect the presence of leukocytes (especially neutrophils). Normally, urine is sterile, so the normal range of leukocytes in urine is low, namely up to 5 white blood cells per high power field of view (WBC/HPF) (4).
According to Dr. Alan Lindemann, obstetrician, former clinical professor at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, “
Leukocytes increase in the blood and urine during pregnancy, but the norm depends on where you start. If your non-pregnant WBC is 5000, then a WBC of 10,000 or 11,000 may be normal for pregnancy, but if you start your pregnancy with a higher WBC, your normal can go up to 15,000
Urine WBC may not indicate a bladder infection, but it can predict a problem. An increase in WBC can indicate a Group B strep infection, so a urine culture is needed because Group B strep bladder infections can cause kidney infections and premature labor or birth.
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XAlso known as urinary retention, is a blockage of the flow of urine through the bladder or urethra. . Moreover, most of the immunological changes in the urinary tract reach their peak during this phase (8).
Symptoms of white blood cells or leukocytes in urine samples from pregnant women can vary depending on the underlying cause. Some of these symptoms include (13) (14)
There are two ways to check leukocytes in urine during pregnancy: a clean urine sample or sterile catheterization. With more vaginal discharge in pregnancy, sterile catheterization is the most accurate leukocyte test during pregnancy
Leukocyte esterase test results may be affected by how the urine sample is stored. There is a possibility that positive samples may become negative after being stored for 24 hours (19).
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Urine sediment from a fresh urine sample is centrifuged at 1,500 to 3,000 rpm for five minutes and resuspended in the remaining fluid for analysis. A drop is placed on a clean glass slide, covered with a cover slip, and viewed under a microscope.
XAn automated screening device that analyzes urine for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI). . Therefore, urine samples of pregnant women sometimes test positive for white blood cells (20).
Treatment options may vary depending on the cause and increase in the level of leukocytes in the urine. Some standard treatment methods that may be included in your prenatal care program to help balance or lower leukocyte levels in the urine during pregnancy are
Treatment should be initiated as soon as high leukocyte levels are detected in urine samples to prevent adverse obstetric outcomes. Some maternal complications include (10)
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Here are some tips that can help prevent increased leukocytes in urine and improve maternal health (13) (18):
Yes. Typically, you may have 0–5 WBC/HPF in your urine even when pregnant. However, if levels exceed 5 WBC/HPF, it may be a sign of infection or inflammation of the urinary tract, and treatment may be required (4).
Yes. In addition to UTI, increased leukocytes in the urine of pregnant women may be caused by cystitis, pyelonephritis, or various genital infections, which increase the risk of fatal complications in the fetus. However, fetal death is rare in such cases (10).
The presence of excess leukocytes in the urine for too long may indicate a severe underlying infection. Severe infections can also cause other symptoms. Therefore, appropriate treatment is very important to avoid negative impacts on the health of the mother and fetus.
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High levels of leukocytes in urine during pregnancy can be caused by various infections caused by bacteria or fungi. Symptoms of high leukocyte levels depend on the underlying cause, but may include frequent urination, fever, and nausea. This condition is usually detected during routine urine tests performed during pregnancy, after which you may be prescribed antibiotics or home remedies, depending on the cause and severity. Therefore, this condition can be treated with timely and effective medical intervention. However, delay in treatment can cause an extreme increase in leukocytes, which can lead to complications.
The presence of increased leukocytes in the urine during pregnancy indicates an underlying infection. Identifying early symptoms and underlying causes is essential for appropriate management. Come on, look at the infographic below which explains various possible symptoms and causes of urine leukocytes during pregnancy.
Find out the potential causes behind high white blood cells in urine during pregnancy and when to consult a doctor about it
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Dr Esha Chainani is an obstetrician, gynecologist and laparoscopic surgeon working in Mumbai. She has over four years of experience and specializes in prenatal care, high-risk pregnancies, fertility, vaginal bleeding, fibroid surgery, fertility surgery, PCOS, and endometriosis. Dr. Chainani has authored several research papers and health articles published internationally. She is the founder of Premaa, a non-profit organization aimed at reducing motherhood…more
Reshmi Das has over four years of experience as a clinical coordinator, medical content writer, and medical conference coordinator. His ongoing interest in medical journals and writing led him to write well-researched articles for medical journals. She writes health and fitness articles for children as well as pregnant and breastfeeding women. Reshmi has completed her post graduation in Biotechnology from MITS School of Biotechnology, …more
Rebecca is a pregnancy writer and editor with a passion for delivering engaging, research-based content in the areas of fertility, pregnancy, birth and post-pregnancy. She completed her graduation in Biotechnology and Genetics from Loyola Academy, Osmania University and obtained her ‘Nutrition and Lifestyle in Pregnancy’ certification from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU). He has entered the health field and…more
Aneesha holds a Bachelor’s degree in Biotechnology from USTM, Meghalaya and a Master’s degree in Applied Microbiology from VIT, Vellore. With two years of experience, he has worked on various research projects in the field of Food Science. Additionally, he has internship experience at Oil India Limited as an R&D project participant. As a writer at , Aneesha ensures… moreUrinalysis (UA) is a simple, non-invasive diagnostic tool that examines the visual, chemical and microscopic properties of a person’s urine. Can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disorders; urinary tract infection; and systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus.
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During urinalysis, a urine sample is collected into a specimen cup and analyzed. The first part of the urinalysis involves direct observation to assess the color, clarity, and odor of the urine. Next, the urine is analyzed using a dipstick test, or urine test strip, in which a chemically treated paper strip is dipped into the urine specimen and reacts with certain substances in the urine, changing color. Color changes can be read manually by comparing the dipstick color with the manufacturer’s guide or automatically with special laboratory equipment, which provides more accurate test results. The final step of urinalysis is microscopic examination, which is usually performed manually on the sediment from a centrifuged urine sample.
Urinalysis tests the chemical and microscopic properties of urine. The exact tests included vary depending on the dipstick test, but common tests include urine pH, specific gravity, blood, protein, glucose, ketones, white blood cells (leukocyte esterase), nitrites, bilirubin, and urobilinogen. Microscopic examination can detect the presence of solid elements in the urine, such as red or white blood cells, epithelial cells, urine casts, microorganisms, and crystals.
The pH of urine is usually slightly acidic, although it can vary from 4.5 to 8.0 depending on the body’s acid-base balance. The formation of kidney stones is greatly influenced by urine pH. Acidic urine favors the crystallization of uric acid or cystine stones, while alkaline urine promotes the crystallization of stones containing calcium and phosphate. Alkaline urine can be caused by infection with urea-breaking bacteria—such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, or Pseudomonas—which break down urea molecules into ammonium and carbon dioxide, thereby increasing urine output.
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