Functions Of Calcium In The Human Body – The skeletal system is a body system consisting of bones, cartilage, blood vessels, and other tissues that plays an important role in the human body. Bone tissue, or bone tissue, is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the bulk of adult bones, the body’s internal support structure. In areas where whole bones move against each other (such as the humerus or the joints between vertebrae), cartilage is a semi-rigid connective tissue that provides movable and smooth surfaces. Additionally, ligaments composed of dense connective tissue wrap around these joints and hold the bony elements together (the dense connective tissue that connects one bone to another). Together they perform the following functions:

Some features of the skeletal system are easier to observe than others. You can feel how your bones support you as you move, making your movements easier and protecting your body’s soft tissues. Just as the steel beams of a building provide the rods that support its weight, the bones and cartilage of your skeletal system provide the rods that support the rest of your body. Without a skeletal system, you’re just a bland mass of organs, muscles, and skin. Bones facilitate movement by being attachment points for your muscles. Bones also protect internal organs from injury by covering or encasing them. For example, your ribs protect your lungs and heart, the bones of your spine (spine) protect your spine, and the bones of your skull protect your brain (see Figure 6.1.1).

Functions Of Calcium In The Human Body

Functions Of Calcium In The Human Body

At the metabolic level, bone tissue performs several critical functions. For one, bone tissue acts as a reservoir of several minerals that are important for body function, particularly calcium and phosphorus. These minerals incorporated into bone tissue can be released back into the blood to maintain levels needed to support physiological processes. For example, calcium ions are essential for muscle contraction and are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.

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Bone also serves as a site for fat storage and blood cell production. The unique connective tissue that fills the inside of most bones is called bone marrow. There are two types of bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. Yolk marrow contains adipose tissue, which releases triglycerides stored in fat as an energy source for other body tissues. Red bone marrow production of blood cells (hematopoiesis, hematopoiesis- = “blood”, -pois = “to make”). Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are all produced in the red bone marrow. With age, the distribution of red and yellow bone marrow changes as shown in the figure (Figure 6.1.2).

Figure 6.1.2 – Bone marrow: Bones contain variable amounts of yellow and/or red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow stores fat and red bone marrow is responsible for making blood cells (blood production).

An orthopedic doctor is a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and injuries related to the musculoskeletal system. Some orthopedic problems can be treated with medication, exercise, bracing, and other devices, but others are best treated with surgery (Figure 6.1.3).

Figure 6.1.3 – Wrist brace: Orthopedists sometimes prescribe the use of braces that reinforce the bony structures being used for support. (Courtesy: Juhan Sonin)

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Orthopedics (ortho- = “straight”; paed- = “child”) derives from the word ortho- = “straight”; paed- = “child”, meaning “to straighten a child”, and an orthopedic doctor can have patients ranging from pediatrics to the elderly. In recent years, orthopedic surgeons have even performed prenatal surgery to repair spina bifida, a congenital defect in which the spinal cord does not close completely during fetal development.

Orthopedists usually treat injuries to the bones and joints, but they also treat other orthopedic conditions, including curvature of the spine. A lateral curve (scoliosis) is severe and forces the shoulder blade (scapula) to slide down. An excessive curvature of the spine (kyphosis) can cause compression of the lower back and chest. These curves are often caused by poor posture, abnormal growth, or unexplained causes. For the most part, they are easily treated by orthopedic surgeons. As people age, cumulative spinal injuries and diseases such as osteoporosis can also cause the spine to curve, which is why you sometimes hunch over as you get older.

Some orthopedic specialists specialize in sports medicine, which addresses simple injuries such as broken ankles and complex injuries such as a torn rotator cuff in the shoulder. Treatment can range from exercise to surgery.

Functions Of Calcium In The Human Body

The main functions of the skeletal system are to support the body, facilitate movement, protect internal organs, store minerals and fat, and form blood cells.

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An organ system consisting of bones, cartilage, and fluids that provide movement, support, protection, mineral and fat storage, and blood cell formation.

This work is adapted from Anatomy and Physiology by Stax, licensed under CC BY. This version, with revised content and artwork, is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Anatomy and Physiology Copyright © 2019 Lindsay M. Biga, Staci Bronson, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Kristen Oja, Devon Quick, Jon Runyeon, OSU OERU , and is licensed under the Stax Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, with no exceptions. Because calcium and phosphorus play important roles in many physiological systems, disturbances in calcium and phosphorus metabolism often have serious bone-related consequences. Cardiovascular disease can even be life-threatening. Physiologically, the maintenance of ischemia in the calcium and phosphorus family is achieved through various coordinated actions of hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF23). Kidneys and bones. Disorders of any organ or factor may lead to disturbances in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Currently, patients are unable to receive accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment in a timely manner due to the lack of accurate diagnostic methods and unknown molecular underlying pathophysiology. Therefore, it is urgent to identify early diagnostic biomarkers and develop therapeutic strategies. Fortunately, proteomics and metabolism provide promising tools to discover novel biomarkers and further understand disease mechanisms. Therefore, in this review, we present a systematic review of PTH-1, 25(OH).

D-FGF23 axis disrupts calcium and phosphorus metabolism, diagnostic biomarkers, and associated metabolic pathways.

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Disorders of calcium and phosphorus metabolism occur when the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the body deviates from the baseline, which is divided into hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hyperlipidemia. Given the biological characteristics of this disease, changes in hormone levels such as calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) can have severe effects. Patients’ quality of life may even be indirectly affected by reduced life expectancy, osteoporosis, bone and dental abnormalities, muscle spasms, nephrotic syndrome, and hypoglycemia, as calcium and phosphorus are important components of bone mineralization (Takeda et al. 2004; van Abel et al. al., 2005; Civitelli and Ziambaras, 2011). In addition, they can also play critical roles in many physiological processes. For example, calcium is involved in hormone secretion, blood coagulation, and nerve excitation, while phosphorus is required for energy metabolism, cell signaling, and stabilization of phospholipid levels in cell membranes (Takeda et al., 2004; Koza et al., 2006). Therefore, the tight regulation of calcium and phosphate ions is essential to maintain normal physiological activity. It is strongly dependent on three target organs: intestine, kidney and bone.

Accumulating evidence suggests that various combined actions of hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) approach each goal in maintaining growth of the calcium and phosphorus family. (Renkema et al. Peacock, 2010). On the one hand, when ionized calcium concentrations increase, the thyroid gland increases calcium secretion, which can decrease circulating polypeptide hormone PTH (Talmage et al., 1980; Austin and Heath, 1981). Therefore, the resulting down-regulated PTH inhibits bone calcium excretion, increases urinary calcium loss, and reduces intestinal calcium absorption by inhibiting the production of 1, 25(OH), the active form of vitamin D.

D, a key mediator of intestinal calcium absorption (Khundmiri et al., 2016). Of note, PTH has a more pronounced effect on increasing urinary phosphate ion excretion. Phosphate can combine with calcium ions to form insoluble salts, which can then remove them from the serum exchange pool. As a result, the decrease in PTH causes the calcium concentration to return to normal. On the other hand, a decrease in ionized calcium concentration can be detected by a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) located in parathode cells, which enhances the rapid release of PTH. Regulated PTH and 1,25(OH)

Functions Of Calcium In The Human Body

D regulates ionized calcium concentration through the same pathway. Also, FGF23 may lower phosphate levels by reducing renal phosphate reabsorption;

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