Effects Of Global Warming On Plants Pdf

Effects Of Global Warming On Plants Pdf – Secondary plant compounds (PSCs), also called secondary metabolites, have a great chemical and structural diversity and appear as non-volatile or volatile compounds. These compounds may have evolved to have specific physiological and ecological functions in the adaptation of plants to their growth environment. PSCs are produced by several metabolic pathways and many PSCs are specific to several plant genera or families. In forest ecosystems, mature trees make up the majority of plant biomass and are therefore capable of producing significant amounts of PSC. We summarize the older literature and review recent advances in understanding the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on forest tree PSC production and PSC behavior in forest ecosystems. The roles of different PSCs under stress and their important role in plant protection against abiotic and biotic factors are also discussed. There was strong evidence that the main drivers of climate change, CO

Increases phenolic compounds in leaves but limits terpenoids in leaves and emissions. Heating reduces the content of phenolic compounds in leaves, but increases terpenoids in leaves and emissions. Other abiotic stresses have more variable effects. PSCs can help trees adapt to a changing climate and pressure from current and invasive pests and pathogens. Indirect adaptation comes through PSC effects on soil chemistry and nutrient cycling, cloud nucleation from tree volatiles and CO

Effects Of Global Warming On Plants Pdf

Effects Of Global Warming On Plants Pdf

Plant secondary compounds (PSCs) have a great chemical diversity with an estimated 200,000 compounds (Dixon and Strack, 2003). In higher plants, the most abundant are terpenoids (about 30,000 known compounds, Lämke and Unsicker, 2018), alkaloids (21,000) (Wink, 2010) and phenolic compounds (8,000) (Munné-Bosch, 2012). different PSC groups. Most PSCs are related to plant chemical defenses and herbivore pressure, which are considered to be the main drivers of PSC diversification (Lämke and Unsicker, 2018). Terpenoids originate directly from glucose glycolysis via the mevalonate pathway or the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway (Bartram et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds originate from the shikimic acid pathway, which is associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and aromatic amino acids (Seigler, 1998; Lindroth, 2012). Most alkaloids are derived from amino acid precursors (Wink, 2010), but conifer alkaloids are synthesized via the polyketide pathway (Seigler, 1998). Terpenes and phenolics are the most extensively studied PSCs in forest trees (Lindroth, 2012; Lämke and Unsicker, 2018), while alkaloids have been considered in relatively few studies (Virjamo et al., 2014). Alkaloids and phenols can compete more in protein synthesis than terpenoids (Koricheva, 2002). Up to 10% of recently fixed carbon can be allocated to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stressed plants (Peñuelas and Staudt, 2010), while stored terpenoids usually require secretory structures such as resin ducts and glandular trichomes to avoid autotoxicity (Goodger et al., 2013).

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It acts as a greenhouse gas and is phytotoxic to plants (Vapaavuori et al., 2009; Lindroth, 2010). At the regional level, global warming affects arctic and boreal regions most strongly and will involve drastic changes, e.g., in precipitation, drought and cloud cover (shading), affecting temperature-dependent ecosystem processes in forests, such as nutrient availability (IPCC, 2014).

Climate change directly affects the abiotic conditions of forest trees and their growth, physiology, and defense, including induced PSC production (Metlen et al., 2009; Figure 1). The responses of other organisms, such as microbial plant pathogens, insect herbivores, and the arrival of exotic invasive herbivores and pathogens will alter the biotic stress on trees (Donnelly et al., 2012). The richness of PSC-derived chemical compounds in forest ecosystems is influenced by PSC reactivity (Kundu et al., 2012). Many volatile reaction products form secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which can affect cloud formation (Zhao et al., 2017; Rose et al., 2018; Scott et al., 2018) and provide important ecosystem feedback – atmosphere, therefore helping vegetation to adapt to CC (e.g. Niinemets, 2018). SOA particles can be wet or dry deposited on forest vegetation and accumulate in the soil (Holopainen et al., 2017) together with litter PSCs (Smolander et al., 2012).

FIGURE 1. Global climate change – associated abiotic and biotic stresses and their impact on the types of plant secondary compounds (PSC) in forest trees. Ecosystem-level feedbacks conveyed by leaf PSCs are indicated by arrows to the left of the target tree. PSCs in leaves provide a chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens (Lämke and Unsicker, 2018). PSC of leaf litter and needles mostly affect nutrient uptake in wood (Smolander et al., 2012) and rhizosphere organisms, while PSC in dead wood are part of an important carbon store (Pan et al., 2011), and stored PSC can mitigate the decay of wood by decomposer organisms (Nerg et al., 2004; Karppanen et al., 2007) and the release of CO

To the atmosphere. Volatile PSCs (VOCs) affect trophic interactions in the forest ecosystem where the tree grows (Blande et al., 2014), while reactive VOCs affect the atmosphere and can have feedbacks at the atmosphere-biosphere level in the surrounding ecosystems (Joutsensaari et al. , 2015).

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We summarize the main results of literature reviews and meta-analyses on the quantitative responses of tree PSCs to specific CC-related abiotic factors, with a limitation to the literature up to 2015 in Figure 2. Recent results of PSCs (after 2015) and VOC plants (after 2012), then research is reviewed. We then discuss the roles of multiple CC-related stresses on forest tree PSCs and the potential of non-volatile and volatile PSCs to modulate plant adaptation to CC and their involvement in climate feedbacks.

FIGURE 2. Summary of results in comprehensive reviews and meta-analyses of responses of plant PSCs to their concentration or emissions in forest trees under climate change stresses. This table covers almost 400 original scientific articles. Type of stress: O

= increased carbon dioxide, UV-B = increased UV-B radiation. The table shows the direction of PSC response to individual environmental factors, except for combined O

Effects Of Global Warming On Plants Pdf

+warming effects. The direction of the arrow (increase or decrease) indicates the effect size (significant or very significant effect in the meta-analysis) or the amount of evidence in the reviews. A horizontal two-way arrow indicates studies with non-significant results, and up and down arrows in the same cell indicate that significant results in both directions predominate. The questionnaire indicates that reviews and meta-analyses did not provide sufficient data. Gray arrows in CO

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+ heating bars indicate woody tissue responses as reported in reference 2. Small numbers in the upper right corner of the reach cell indicate the source reference: 1 = Koricheva et al., 1998; 2 = Zvereva and Kozlov, 2006; 3 = Valkama et al., 2007; 4 = Peñuelas and Staudt, 2010; 5 = Lindroth, 2012; 6 = Julkunen-Tiitto et al., 2015; 7 = Robinson et al., 2012; 8 = Li et al., 2017. References 1–3 and 7–8 are meta-analyses, and 4–6 are literature reviews. Meta-analyses provide effect sizes, and reviews the frequency of observations in each response category (–, 0, +).

Terpenoids and phenolic compounds in leaves and terpenoids in emissions are the most frequently studied PSC of forest trees in response to CC-related factors (Figure 2). Major factors of CC such as elevated CO

Increases leaf phenolics and decreases leaf terpenoids and emissions, while warming decreases leaf phenolics and increases leaf terpenoids and emissions (Zvereva and Kozlov, 2006; Peñuelas and Staudt, 2010). CO

+warming increased phenols in leaves, but decreased phenols in woody tissues of woody plants (Zvereva and Kozlov, 2006). ON

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Effects on foliar terpene concentration and volatile emissions were different, but an increase in phenolic compounds was found. One of the reasons for the different terpene reactions could be the variation of O. within the species

Terpene reactivity (Blande et al., 2014). Major terpenoid groups such as monoterpenes (MT) and sesquiterpenes (SQT) in leaves have been less studied separately under most other CC-related stresses.

Certain groups of plant PSCs such as flavonoids (Lavola et al., 2013) and MT (Semiz et al., 2007) are under strong genotypic control. This may increase the potential of chemical defenses of forest trees to adapt evolutionarily to environmental changes (Lavola et al., 2013). However, the large within-species variation of PSCs is problematic for short-term experimental settings and may mask the effects of environmental factors on PSC concentrations and emissions.

Effects Of Global Warming On Plants Pdf

Total phenolics in leaves, especially condensed tannins (Julkunen-Tiitto et al., 2015), follow the traditional carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (Bryant et al., 1983), which predicts that photosynthesized carbon will be diverted to PSCs rich in carbon, if photosynthesis or CO

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Availability is at a high level, and the availability of nutrients limits carbon distribution in plant growth (Koricheva et al., 1998). However, many flavonoids and other phenolics, especially terpenoids, do not support this hypothesis (Lindroth, 2012). Recent studies have confirmed the trend with foliar phenolics; doubled ambient CO

Increased salicylates and phenolic acids (Sobuj et al., 2018), anthocyanins and flavonoids (Vanzo et al., 2015; Nissinen et al., 2016), while less than doubled CO

It did not affect phenolics (McKiernan et al., 2012; Randriamanana et al., 2018). Furthermore, some phenolic groups, such as phenolic glycosides, are not as sensitive (Jamieson et al., 2017). No effect of elevated CO was observed in Eucalyptus spp

The decrease in foliar phenolics at elevated temperatures (Julkunen-Tiitto et al., 2015) has been explained by a dilution effect whereby more carbon is allocated to growth support structures with phenolic turnover slow or even

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