Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine – “Gross hematuria” occurs when the urine appears red, brown, or tea-colored due to the presence of blood. Hematuria can also be subtle and only detectable with a microscope or laboratory test.

Blood mixing with the urine can come from anywhere in the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra, and, in m, the prostate.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

Common causes of hematuria include urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney stones, viral disease, trauma, bladder cancer, and exercise.

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These causes are grouped into glomerular and non-glomerular causes, depending on the involvement of the glomerulus in the kidney.

Other substances such as certain medications and foods (eg blackberries, beets, food dyes) can cause urine to appear red.

Menstruation in the woman can also cause the appearance of hematuria and can result in a positive urine sample for hematuria.

A urine sample may also give a false positive for hematuria if there are other substances in the urine, such as myoglobin, a protein that is excreted in the urine during rhabdomyolysis. A positive urine sample should be confirmed by microscopy, where hematuria is defined by three or more red blood cells per high power field.

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When hematuria is detected, a thorough history and physical examination with appropriate further evaluation (eg, laboratory tests) can help determine the underlying cause.

Many causes can be either visible hematuria or microscopic hematuria, and therefore the differential diagnosis is often organized based on glomerular and non-glomerular causes.

Hematuria due to a glomerular source commonly appears as dysmorphic red blood cells (bad red blood cells) or red blood cell casts (small tubular structures composed of red blood cells) on urine microscopy. This happens because the red blood cells are deformed when they pass through the glomerular capillaries into the ral tubules and possibly into the urinary system.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

Normally, red blood cells should never pass from the glomerular capillary into the ral tubule, and this is always a pathological process.

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While the urine sample is able to recognize heme in red blood cells, it also identifies free hemoglobin and myoglobin.

Free hemoglobin can be found in the urine as a result of hemolysis, and myoglobin can be found in the urine as a result of rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown).

Thus, a positive dipstick test does not necessarily indicate hematuria; rather, microscopy of the urine showing three or more red blood cells per high power field, hematuria.

In women, menstruation can cause the appearance of hematuria and can result in a urine dipstick test positive for hematuria.

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Menstruation can be ruled out as a cause of hematuria by inquiring about menstrual history and ensuring that the urine sample is taken without menstrual blood.

The evaluation of hematuria is dependent on the visibility of the blood in the urine (ie, visible/gross vs microscopic hematuria).

Hematuria alone without accompanying symptoms should raise the suspicion of urinary tract malignancy until proven otherwise.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

The initial evaluation of patients with signs and symptoms consisting of hematuria includes assessment of hemodynamic status, underlying cause of hematuria, and assurance of urinary drainage. These steps include assessment of the teat’s heart rate, blood pressure, a medical examination by a healthcare professional, and blood tests to ensure the teat’s hemodynamic status is adequate.

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It is important to obtain a detailed history from the teat (ie, recreational, occupational, and drug exposures), as this information may be helpful in suggesting a cause of hematuria.

The physical examination may also be helpful in identifying a cause of the hematuria, as certain signs found on the physical examination may indicate specific causes of the hematuria.

In any If the initial evaluation of hematuria does not reveal an underlying cause, evaluation by a urologist may continue. This medical evaluation may consist of, but is not limited to, a history and physical examination by health care professionals, laboratory tests (ie, blood tests), cystoscopy, and specialized imaging procedures (ie, CT or MRI).

The first step in the evaluation of red or brown-colored urine is to confirm true hematuria with urinalysis and urinalysis, where hematuria is defined by three or more red blood cells per unit. high power field.

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When gathering information, it is important to inquire about rectal trauma, urological procedures, MSES and culture-documented urinary tract infection.

If any of these are prestige, it is appropriate to repeat a urinalysis with urine microscopy in 1 to 2 weeks or after treatment of the infection.

If the results of the urinalysis and urine microscopy reveal a glomerular origin of hematuria (indicated by proteinuria or red blood cell casts), consultation with a nephrologist should be undertaken.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

If the results of the urinalysis indicate a non-glomerular origin, a microbiological culture of the urine should be performed if not already done.

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If the culture is positive (indicating a bladder infection), urinalysis and urinalysis should be repeated after treatment to confirm resolution of the hematuria.

If culture is negative or if hematuria persists after treatment, CT urogram or ral ultrasound and cystoscopy should be performed.

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article so that it reflects the correct possible or newly available information. (March 2023)

After detecting and confirming hematuria with urinalysis and urine microscopy, the first step in the evaluation of microhematuria is to rule out major causes.

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Major causes include urinary tract infection, viral disease, kidney stones, rectal intense exercise, mses, rectal trauma, or rectal urological procedure.

After major causes have resolved or been treated, repeat urinalysis and urinalysis are warranted to ensure cessation of hematuria.

If hematuria persists (or if a cause is suspected), the next step is to stratify the person’s risk of urothelial cancer into low, medium, or high risk to determine next steps.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

To be in the low-risk category, one must meet all of the following criteria: Never smoked tobacco or smoked less than 10 pack-years; is a woman under the age of 50 or a man under the age of 40; have 3-10 red blood cells per high power field; have not had microscopic hematuria before; and have no other risk factors for urothelial cancer.

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To be in the intermediate risk category, you must meet one of the following criteria: Have smoked for 10-30 pack years; is a woman aged 50-59 or a man aged 40-59; have 11-25 red blood cells per high power field; or was previously a low-risk patient with persistent microscopic hematuria and has 3-25 red blood cells per high power field.

To be in the high-risk category, you must meet one of the following criteria: Have smoked more than 30 pack-years; are older than 60 years; or have more than 25 red blood cells per high power field in any urinalysis.

For the low-risk category, the next step is either to repeat a urinalysis with urine microscopy in 6 months or perform a cystoscopy and ral ultrasound.

However, if no underlying cause is discovered, the hematuria should be reevaluated with urinalysis and urinalysis within 12 months.

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For all risk categories, a nephrologist should also be consulted if a nephrological origin is suspected.

The pathophysiology of hematuria can often be explained by damage to the structures of the urinary system, including the kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra, and in m, the prostate.

Common mechanisms include structural disruption of the glomerular basement membrane and mechanical or chemical erosion of the mucous membranes of the urinary tract.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

If this does not control bleeding, management should escalate to continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) via a three-port urethral catheter.

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If both a large urethral Foley catheter and CBI fail, an emergency cystoscopy in the operating room will be necessary.

Urosepsis is defined as sepsis caused by a urogenital infection and comprises about 25% of all sepsis cases.

Urosepsis results from a systemic inflammatory response to infection and can be identified by several signs and symptoms (eg, fever, hypothermia, tachycardia, and leukocytosis).

Signs and symptoms indicating that a urogenital tract infection is the source of sepsis may include, but are not limited to, flank pain, coovertebral angle tenderness, pain with urination, urinary urgency, and scrotal pain.

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In terms of visibility, hematuria may be visible to the naked eye (called “gross hematuria”) and may appear red or brown (sometimes referred to as tea-colored), or it may be microscopic (ie not visible to the eye but detected urosepsis.

In addition to imaging tests, patitis can be treated with antibiotics to relieve the infection and intravenous fluids to maintain cardiovascular and ral perfusion.

Acute management of hemodynamic status, in any intravous fluid is unsuccessful, may include use of vasopressor medication and placemt of a ctral vous line.

Causes Of Red Blood Cells In Urine

Higher rates are found in people older than 60 years and those with a past or past history of smoking.

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Where asymptomatic populations are screened with dipstick and/or microscopy, medical testing, approximately 2% to 3% of those with hematuria have a urologic malignancy.

These risk factors include age (> 40 years), male sex, past or current smoking, chemical exposure (eg, bzes, hydrocarbons, aromatic amines), history of chemotherapy (alkylating agents, ifosfamide), long-term foreign body in the bladder (eg, e.g. as a bladder catheter), previous pelvic radiotherapy or more than 25 red blood cells per

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