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Urinalysis (UA) is a simple, non-invasive diagnostic tool that examines the visual, chemical and microscopic characteristics of urine. It can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including kidney disorders; urinary tract infections; and systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.
- 1 Blood And White Cells In Urine But No Infection
- 2 Urinalysis: What Is It, Testing, Indications, And More
- 3 Urine Color Chart: What’s Normal And When To See A Doctor
- 4 White Blood Cells Urine Stock Photos
Blood And White Cells In Urine But No Infection
During urinalysis, a urine sample is collected in a sample cup and analyzed. The first part of the urinalysis involves direct observation to assess the color, clarity, and odor of the urine. Next, the urine is analyzed with a dipstick test, i.e. a urine test strip, where chemically treated paper strips are dipped into the urine sample, which react with certain substances in the urine and thus change the color. Color changes can be read either manually by comparing the colors of the dipstick with the manufacturer’s instructions, or automatically with a specialized laboratory device that provides more accurate test results. The final stage of urinalysis is microscopic examination, which is traditionally performed manually on the sediment of a centrifuged urine sample.
Urinalysis: What Is It, Testing, Indications, And More
Urinalysis tests the chemical and microscopic properties of urine. The exact tests vary by dipstick test, but common ones include urine pH, specific gravity, blood, proteins, glucose, ketones, white blood cells (leukocyte esterase), nitrites, bilirubin, and urobilinogen. Microscopic examination can determine the presence of solid elements in the urine, such as red or white blood cells, epithelial cells, urine granules, microorganisms and crystals.
Urine pH is usually slightly acidic, although it can vary from as low as 4.5 to as high as 8.0, depending on the body’s acid-base balance. The formation of kidney stones is greatly influenced by the pH of the urine. Acidic urine promotes the crystallization of uric acid or cystine stones, while alkaline urine promotes the formation of calcium and phosphate stones. Alkaline urine can be caused by an infection with urea-splitting bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, or Pseudomonas, which break down urea molecules into ammonium and carbon dioxide, raising the pH of the urine to a neutral or alkaline value. The pH level of urine is also affected by nutritional factors. A high-protein diet can cause acidic urine, while a vegetarian diet can cause alkaline urine.
Specific gravity measures the kidney’s ability to concentrate or dilute urine by comparing its density to that of distilled water (1,000). Because urine contains various solutes, its specific gravity is higher than that of water – usually 1.005 to 1.025. A high specific gravity represents concentrated urine and may indicate dehydration or increased concentrations of solutes in the urine. A low specific gravity, on the other hand, represents diluted urine and can occur as a result of drinking a lot of fluid, diabetes insipidus, or kidney disease, when the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine is impaired.
The presence of blood in the urine is known as hematuria. It can be classified as gross hematuria, when it is visible to the naked eye, or microhematuria, when it can only be seen under a microscope. Hematuria can be caused by a number of reasons, including damage to the kidney’s glomerular filtration barrier, which typically prevents blood from passing into the urine; damage to the urinary tract, such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones or tumors; and systemic diseases, such as vasculitis, lupus and tuberculosis, among others. During menstruation, there may be blood in the urine due to contamination of the urine sample.
Elevated Pus Cells In Urine During Pregnancy: Reasons, Treatment And Home Remedies
In healthy individuals, urine contains only a small amount of protein because most protein molecules, such as albumin, are too large to pass through the glomerular filtration barrier. When a significant amount of protein appears in the urine, it is known as proteinuria and is usually a sign of glomerular damage. Benign causes of proteinuria include fever, strenuous exercise, dehydration, emotional stress, and acute illness. More serious causes include glomerulonephritis and multiple myeloma.
Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is a common finding in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, although it can also occur when glucose levels are normal, such as during pregnancy, physiological stress, and when corticosteroids are used. There are a number of hypoglycemic drugs called sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors (eg, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin) that act on the kidneys to promote glucose excretion in the urine, which also leads to glycosuria. .
Ketones are metabolic products of fatty acid metabolism. Fat breakdown can occur with prolonged starvation, persistent vomiting or diarrhea, chronic alcohol use, and low-carbohydrate diets (e.g. keto or ketogenic diets). More importantly, ketones can accumulate in the blood of people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (especially type 1 diabetes mellitus) and cause acidosis. This is called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is a potentially life-threatening emergency. DKA can be suspected when high levels of ketones are found in the blood or urine of people with diabetes.
The presence of white blood cells in the urine, or pyuria, is a common sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Since white blood cells can only be evaluated by microscopic examination, dipstick tests use leukocyte esterase (ie, an enzyme inside white blood cells) to estimate the concentration of white blood cells in the urine. In cases where a urinary tract infection is suspected, a urine culture is obtained to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying organism. If no bacterial cells are detected, the individual is said to have sterile pyuria – a typical finding in urinary tuberculosis.
Rbc In Urine: What It Means, Ranges, And Test Results
Most gram-negative bacterial species that colonize the urinary tract produce nitrate reductase, an enzyme that converts dietary nitrates to nitrites. Both urinary nitrites and leukocyte esterase provide a good screening test for urinary tract infections; However, since not all bacteria produce nitrites, a negative nitrite test alone does not rule out a urinary tract infection.
Bilirubin is a breakdown product of red blood cell metabolism that is not normally found in urine. If bilirubin is found in the urine, liver disease or obstruction of the bile duct (where there are problems with the secretion of bile into the intestine) can be suspected. On the other hand, small amounts of urobilinogen can be present in the urine of healthy individuals. Urobilinogen is the end product of conjugated bilirubin after it passes through the bile duct and is metabolized by bacteria in the gut. Some of this urobilinogen is reabsorbed into the portal circulation and finally filtered through the kidneys. People with increased destruction of red blood cells (ie, hemolytic anemia) or liver disease may have elevated levels of urobilinogen in their urine. On the other hand, if the Bile Duct is blocked, less bilirubin enters the intestine and ultimately less urobilinogen is found in the urine.
Urinalysis is a diagnostic tool that plays an essential role in the health assessment process and is typically performed on individuals with urinary symptoms (e.g. painful urination, frequency and urgency to urinate, lower abdominal pain) and pregnant individuals to determine urinary symptoms. asymptomatic bacteriuria. It also provides clinicians with valuable information for monitoring several diseases, including diabetes mellitus, liver disease, or kidney disease.
Other urine tests that can be done, but are not usually included in the urinalysis, are screening for drug use (e.g. cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, etc.), urine cytology (i.e. the study of cells in the urine, used to screen for urological cancers, among others) , measurement of electrolyte levels or hormones, and a urine pregnancy test.
Urine Color Chart: What’s Normal And When To See A Doctor
Urinalysis includes physical examination of urine, urine testing and examination of urine under a microscope. The urine test can be used to check the pH of the urine and, among other things, the concentrations of nitrites, red blood cells, white cells, proteins, ketones and glucose. Altered test results can be caused by a variety of conditions that damage the kidneys or urinary tract, including kidney disorders; urinary tract infections; or systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.
Mundt, L.A., Shanahan, K., & Graff, L. (2016). Graff’s Textbook of Urine and Body Fluids (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health. So many things can cause blood in your urine, including infections, vigorous exercise, and kidney disease. However, you should not ignore hematuria (blood in your urine). Health care providers can help you find the cause and the best treatment.
Urine can tell health stories, with colors ranging from light yellow to yellow amber to red, and red may indicate bloody urine (hematuria).
Hematuria is the medical name for the presence of blood cells in the urine (pee). Health care providers label blood in the urine as gross, microscopic, or dipstick.
White Blood Cells Urine Stock Photos
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Blood in the urine is a common finding. It affects an estimated 2 to 30 percent of the US adult population.
Urine can have a number of different causes, some more serious than others. These conditions can be associated with infections or stones, including:
In addition to these other diseases, cells that grow out of control in certain parts of the body—what we know as cancer—can cause blood in your urine. These conditions include:
Hematuria (blood In Urine)
Often there are no symptoms other than blood
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