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- 1 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Renewable Energy Sources
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Renewable Energy Sources
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By George E. Halkos George E. Halkos Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications * and Eleni-Christina Gkampoura Eleni-Christina Gkampoura Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications
Application received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Fossil Fuel Phase Out
The world’s increasing population, including economic and technological development and new, modern lifestyles, have led to increased demands and efforts. Fossil fuels have been the main source of energy for many years, but their use has many negative effects on the environment. This has made the transition to renewable energy sources necessary in order to tackle climate change and meet the 1.5°C target. This paper is a review of different types of renewable energy, their potential and limitations, and their connection to climate change, economic growth, and human consumption. healthy. It also examines consumers’ willingness to pay for renewable energy in different countries, based on existing data. IEA (International Energy Agency) data is analyzed, regarding current renewable energy sources, changes in their use, and predictions about their future use. Finally, policies and strategies are recommended in order to tackle climate change and make renewable energy a sustainable energy source.
Energy is essential for the satisfaction of human needs. It is essential for human health, daily life, communication and mobility and, in general, economic and social development and health. drink clean . The world’s energy needs have increased rapidly in recent years and, as the population grows, including economic and business development, they are expected to increase. The world population is estimated to reach approximately 9 billion by 2050 . According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), between 2018 and 2050, the world’s energy consumption is predicted to increase by 50% .
Since the industrial revolution and until now, fossil fuels have been the main source of energy, and their consumption has grown to nearly 10,000 million tons of oil equivalent. In 2010, fossil fuels provide about 80% of all primary energy worldwide  and they must be used in the same importance in the future to meet the global energy demand . More specifically, fossil fuels are expected to be 78% of all energy used worldwide in 2040 .
The negative impact of fossil fuels on the environment has been known for a long time. Their burning and consumption causes large greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, which is the cause of global warming and climate change . According to the EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 65% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are carbon dioxide emissions (CO
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The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 set the framework for reducing GHG emissions, stating that reduction is essential to avoid environmental damage . In addition, the United Nations announced 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which include, among others, the topics of clean energy, climate change, and GHG emissions, setting the standard target of using GHG emissions reduction policies and strategies .
One of the main reductions is the limitation of fossil fuels’ use and the transition to renewable sources , because energy is considered to be important in sustainable development . In addition, the scarcity of fossil fuels and their high prices make the transition to more important in order to ensure energy security and meet the needs of energy . Renewable energy has an average of 17.5% in the total final energy consumption worldwide in the period 1990-2015 and it is expected to be the largest energy source in the future [ 3].
This paper examines the potential and limitations of renewable energy sources and the advantages and disadvantages of their use in relation to the environment, climate change, and highways. growth of business. It also presents consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable energy in different countries, as it has been calculated by other studies in recent literature. no. Finally, it analyzes data that reflect changes in their past use and predictions of their future use.
As renewable energy sources (RES) or other sources of energy are considered all energy sources that can be renewable, produce excess electricity, and weak . RES includes solar energy, wind energy, bioenergy, geothermal, hydropower, and ocean energy  and they can be used for power generation, transportation, domestic use, heating in cities, etc. .
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Renewable energy products have many possibilities and advantages. They can improve the environment, because they produce little or no GHG emissions. They distribute power equally and solve security problems and power poverty, because they can be found in almost every part of the world, while they can be considered a powerful force, compared to fossil fuels. In addition, they have low market value and economic benefits and, at the macroeconomic level, they promote employment and stabilize energy costs. They can improve the living conditions of the family and can cover most of the energy needs without running out . In addition, they can have a positive impact on human health, as research has shown that, due to their low GHG emissions, they do not cause health problems more clean, compared to fossil fuels .
The main disadvantages of renewable energy products include their initial costs, which can be excessive and disruptive to consumers, as well as storage costs, which are also very high. In addition, renewable energy depends on the weather, and the weather can not last for a long time can cause the energy to be weak . In addition to that, large land needs to be built in order to develop the necessary renewable energy. According to Brook and Bradshaw , renewable energy sources can provide approximately 50% of the total energy demand in the United States, but more than 17% of the land needs to be used [ 5].
Although there are small hurdles to overcome, renewable energy is considered the best option in order to meet the world’s needs of the energy, replace the excessive use of fossil fuels, and satisfy the 7th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for cheap and clean energy .
Solar energy refers to the energy that comes from the light of the sun or its heat . It is produced in photovoltaics (PV) or in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. PVs are panels that can quickly convert sunlight into electricity, can be used for personal use and on a larger scale, and are one of the most important modern energy sources. electricity. They are expected to play an important role in the future of electricity and power generation. CSPs use mirrors to collect the sun’s rays that heat the liquid, and the resulting energy moves the turbine to generate electricity . The sun can produce infinite energy, which means that solar energy can eliminate the use of fossil fuels and meet all energy needs . More specifically, the sun can provide “more than 7500 times the world’s total annual energy consumption of 450 EJ”, according to the World Energy Council . In addition, solar energy is non-polluting and does not harm the environment and human health, while it can provide energy security, because solar energy exists anywhere in the world .
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Although the sun produces infinite energy, the energy used by sunlight is approximately 0.04%. The reason for that is related to its cost, since the installation of photovoltaic panels is still expensive, despite the development of new technologies and even if the price has been reduced a lot in ten years ago. Although it has high performance and low operating costs
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