What Is Thyroid Gland And Its Function – The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and produces thyroid hormones, which are important for metabolic health.
The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck just below the Adam’s apple (larynx). It is butterfly-shaped and consists of two lobes located on either side of the trachea (trachea). A normal thyroid gland is usually not visible externally or can be felt if finger pressure is applied to the neck.
- 1 What Is Thyroid Gland And Its Function
- 2 Question Video: Recalling The Hormones Secreted By The Thyroid Gland
What Is Thyroid Gland And Its Function
Diagram showing the location of the thyroid gland in the neck. It has two lobes and is located in front of the trachea (trachea). The voice box (larynx) is located just above the thyroid. Image created using Biorender.
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Growth and development. It plays a role in heart control, muscle and digestive function, brain development and bone maintenance. Its correct functioning depends on a good supply of iodine from the diet. The cells that make thyroid hormones are highly specialized in extracting and absorbing iodine from the blood and incorporating it into thyroid hormones.
The pituitary gland makes and sends out a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH tells the thyroid gland how much hormone to produce and secrete. TSH levels in the blood are rising and falling depending on your body’s needs, to produce more or less thyroid hormones.
The pituitary gland responds directly to thyroid hormones in the blood, but it also responds to signals from the hypothalamus, which sits above the pituitary gland as part of your brain. The hypothalamus releases its own hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH in turn stimulates the release of TSH in the pituitary, which then signals the thyroid gland.
This whole network is also called the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and it adapts to your body’s metabolic changes and needs.
Thyroid Gland And Thyroid Hormones
Diagram showing the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Highlighted areas show the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Image created using Biorender
The thyroid gland produces thyroxine (called T4), which is a relatively inactive prohormone, and the very active hormone called triiodothyronine (called T3). Collectively, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are called thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland produces only 20% of the highly active T3, and it mainly produces the prohormone T4, which makes up about 80% of the thyroid hormones secreted. Once secreted by the thyroid, specific enzymes in other tissues such as the liver or kidneys convert T4 into the active hormone T3 (which accounts for most of the body’s T3).
In addition, there are other hormone-producing cells within the thyroid gland called C cells. These cells produce calcitonin. Calcitonin plays a role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood, which is important for maintaining healthy bones.
Normally the thyroid gland produces the exact number of hormones needed to keep your body’s metabolism running and in balance. As described above, the TSH secreted by the pituitary gland remains at a constant level in your bloodstream, but the level increases when T4 levels fall and decreases when T4 levels in the blood rise. This hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback loop keeps blood T4 levels stable and reacts to small changes immediately.
Know The Importance Of Thyroid Hormones; Its Functions, Testing, And Health Conditions
However, there are several disorders associated with the thyroid gland with most problems related to the production of thyroid hormones. Either the thyroid gland produces too much hormone (called hyperthyroidism), which causes your body to use energy faster than it should; or your thyroid doesn’t make enough hormone (called hypothyroidism), so your body uses energy more slowly than it should. Cancer of the thyroid gland can rarely develop.
Typical symptoms of hyperthyroidism are weight loss, fast (and sometimes irregular) heart rate, irritability/nervousness, muscle weakness and tremors, changes in menstrual periods, sleep problems, eye problems, and sensitivity to heat.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, slower heart rate, fatigue, menstrual period abnormalities, forgetfulness, dry skin and hair, hoarse voice, and cold intolerance.
In addition, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can be accompanied by an enlargement of the thyroid gland known as a goiter.
All About Thyroid
Worldwide, it is estimated that more than 200 million people have some form of thyroid disease. People of all ages and races can suffer from thyroid disease. However, women are 5 to 10 times more likely than men to develop problems with thyroid function.
A special form of thyroiditis is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This is a genetic disorder that causes the immune system to make the thyroid gland underactive. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis often runs in families. In addition, thyroiditis can occur in women after childbirth, this is called postpartum thyroiditis. Postpartum thyroiditis is usually a temporary condition and only occurs in 5-9% of women who give birth.
Nutrition also affects the function of the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism. This is a worldwide problem that affects approximately 100 million people. As mentioned above, the thyroid gland uses iodine to make hormones.
Medications, radioactive iodine treatment and thyroid surgery, and conditions affecting the pituitary gland can also cause hypothyroidism.
Question Video: Recalling The Hormones Secreted By The Thyroid Gland
Graves’ disease is a condition in which the immune system causes the thyroid gland to become overactive and produce too much hormone. Your thyroid gland may be enlarged and called a diffuse toxic goiter.
Thyroiditis (inflammation) caused by a viral infection can trigger the release of hormones stored in the thyroid gland. This uncontrolled release of thyroid hormones causes hyperthyroidism for a few weeks or months, with thyroid function returning to normal in most cases.
Excessive iodine intake can have negative effects on the thyroid gland. Large amounts of iodine are found in several drugs, such as amiodarone, Lugol’s (iodine) solution, some cough syrups, and contrast dyes used for some types of scans. This can cause the thyroid to produce too much or too little thyroid hormone in some individuals.
Swellings and lumps can occur inside the thyroid gland, and are called nodules. Most thyroid nodules are harmless, but some can cause overproduction of thyroid hormones. Rarely, thyroid nodules can be cancerous. In some cases, such as cancer, part or all of the thyroid gland is removed. You can live without your thyroid, but you need to take medication daily to replace the hormones produced by your thyroid gland.
Thyroid Hormones: Video, Anatomy, Definition & Function
Iodine is the critical “ingredient” for thyroid hormone production. We don’t need a lot of iodine, but a daily and constant supply of this micronutrient is important. Excess iodine can cause problems with the thyroid gland as described above. The best way to get your daily dose of iodine is to eat foods like seafood and dairy products. Also, iodized salt (salt with added iodine) is a good source of iodine and you can use it to season your food.
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Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Thyrotoxicosis Graves Disease Multinodular Goiter Goiter Thyroid Cancer Hashimoto’s Disease Toxic Thyroid Nodule Familial Medullary Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Eye Disease Female Infertility View All Endocrine Diseases Thyroid hormones are all hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland called (thyrothyroid) ). They are tyrosine-based hormones that are mainly responsible for the regulation of metabolism. T
) inside cells by deiodinases (5′-deiodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a). All three isoforms of deiodinases are selenium-containing cymes, so dietary selenium is essential for T
Thyroid And Parathyroid Glands
Thyroid hormone is one of the factors responsible for the modulation of energy expansion. This is achieved through various mechanisms such as mitochondrial biogenesis, adaptive thermogenesis, etc.
In 2020, levothyroxine, a manufactured form of thyroxine, was the second most prescribed drug in the United States, with more than 98 million prescriptions.
Thyroid hormones act on almost every cell in the body. It acts by increasing basal metabolic rate, affects protein synthesis, helps regulate long bone growth (synergy with growth hormone) and neural maturation, and increases the body’s sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adraline) by permissiveness.
Thyroid hormones are essential for the correct development and differentiation of all cells in the human body. These hormones also regulate the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, affecting the way human cells use energy compounds. They also stimulate the metabolism of vitamins. Numerous physiological and pathological stimuli influence thyroid hormone synthesis.
Hypothyroidism: The Hidden Struggle
Thyroid hormone leads to heat generation in humans. However, thyronamines function by some unknown mechanism to inhibit neuronal activity; this plays an important role in the hibernation cycles of mammals and the moulting behavior of birds. One effect of thyronamine administration is a sharp drop in body temperature.
Are used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism). Both are well absorbed by the stomach, so they can be administered orally. Levothyroxine is the pharmaceutical name for the manufactured version of T
And hce usually needs only one daily administration. Natural desiccated thyroid hormones are derived from pig thyroid glands and are a “natural” hypothyroid treatment containing 20% T.
Medicines (INN: liothyronine). Levothyroxine sodium is usually the first course of treatment tried. Some patients feel they do better with desiccated thyroid hormones; however, this is based on anecdotal evidence and clinical trials have shown no benefit over biosynthetic forms.
Thyroid Gland And Hormones Regulations
Thyroid tablets are reported to have different effects, which may be attributed to the difference in torsion angles surrounding the reactive site of the molecule.
Thyronamines do not yet have medical uses, although their use has been proposed for the controlled induction of hypothermia, which causes the brain to have a protective effect.
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